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Edited by F. Ll. GRIFFITH 









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Sir K Maunde-Thompson, K.C.B,, D.C.L., 

Genebal Lord Grknpell, G.C.B., Q.C.M.G. 
TnE Rev. Peof. A. H. Satce, M.A., LL.1). 
The Hon. Chas. L. Hutchinson (U.S.A.). 

Prof. G. Maspero, D.C.L. (Franco). 
Prop. Ad. Erman^ Ph.D. (Germany). 
JosiAH Mullens, Esq. (Australia). 
M. Charles Hentsch (Switzerland). 

1)on. TTreaeurerd. 

II. A. Grubber, Esq., F.S.A. 

F. C. Foster, Esq. (Boston, U.S.A.). 

1)on. Secretari?. 
J. S. Cotton, Esq., M.A. 

ftembcvB of Committee. 

T. U. Batlis, Esq., M.A., K.C., V.D. 

Miss M. Brodrick, Ph.D. (for Boston). 

Mrs. Buckman (for Pittsburg). 

Major E. B. Cassatt, B.A. 

SoMERS Clarke, Esq., F.S.A. 

W. E. Cbum, Esq., M.A. 

Louis Dyer, Esq., M.A. (for Chicago). 

Arthur John Evans, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 

F. Ll. Griffith, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. 

T. Farmer Hall, Esq. 

F. G. Kenyon, Esq., M.A., Litt.D. 

Mrs. McClfre. 

The Rev. W. MaoGrbgor, M.A, 

A. S. Murray, Esq., LL.D., F.S.A. 
The Marquess of Northampton. 
Francis Wm. Pbrcival, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. 
F. G. Hilton Price, Esq., Dir.S.A. 
Mrs. Saua G. Stevenson (for Philadelphia). 
Herbert Thompson, Esq. 
Mrs. Tirard. 

The Rev. H. G. Tomkins, M.A. 
Emanuel M. Underdown, Esq., K.C. 
E. Towry Whyte, Esq., F.S.A. 
Major-General Sir Charles W. Wilson 
K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 

-^ ^ 1^ ^ ^ 


List of the Plates 



I. — Introduction. 

1. Previous work in the Necropolis . 

2. The present undertaking 

3. The situation of the Necropolis . 

4. The tombs of the Southern Group 

5. List of tombs of the Southern Group . 


II. — Description of the Tombs. 

1. The tomb of Aba 

2. The smaller inscribed tombs 

III. — ^The Nomarch and the Nome 

Appendix. — The Tomb of Aba at Thebes 










iece. Dancing girls. W. wall 




Group. General Survey .... 

. . . 3,4,5,6,7 


Tomb of Aba. 

Plan ....... 

. 10, 11 



Sections, &c. ...... 

. 10, 11 



S. wall, E. side ..... 




„ ,. (completion) . . 




„ W. side ..... 

. 13, 14 



„ „ (completion) 




E. wall 

21, 22, 23, 34 



W. wall, N. portion .... 

14, 15, 16 



W. and N. walls. Fragments 

. 15, 16, 17, 18 



W. wall, S. portion 




N. wall, W. side 

17, 18 



„ „ (completion) 




„ E. side 

. 18, 20 



55 55 ..... 

. 19,20 




55 55 ...... 

18, 20, 21 



57 55 ...... 

. 20,21 

XV 11. 


Shrine, W. wall 




„ N. wall 

. 23,24 



„ E. wall 




Preparing fish ...... 



Details and Plans 

. 4, 5, 7, 24, 25. 26 




XXII. Smaller Tombs. Plans . 

XXIII. Fragmentary inscriptions 

XXIV. Tomb at Thebes. Artificers . 






5, 6, 7, 25 

. 21, 22, 24, 25, 26 

. 36, 37, 38, 39 

. 37, 38, 39, 40 

Note. — The coloured plates are from paintings hy Mr, Percy Bu4:kman. Plates II, and Ilk, are based on plans hy 

Mr, John Newberry. Tlie mural scenes have all been reproduced directly from tracings. Wltere possible, the colours 

have been indicated on the plates by initial letters , as follows : — 

b = blue ; y = yellow ; it = white ; bk = black ; and 

r = red; or = orange; g = green; dr = drah (perhaps merely 

lack of colour). 





I. Previous Work in the Necropolis. 

It is rarely that under this heading the historian 
has to go back beyond the middle of the last 
century. He laments in vain that no one in the 
Middle Ages, whether of European or Arab 
birth, was impelled by curiosity or by a breadth 
of sympathy beyond his time to copy the 
ancient monuments of Egypt, which in those 
days must have been far more numerous and 
complete than now. Since the work of 
accurately reproducing these ancient master- 
pieces goes forward but tardily even in our 
days, this may seem an unreasonable reproach. 
Yet in the case of the tombs of Deir el Gebrdwi 
an acknowledgment is due to a time far 
earlier than the Christian centuries. The most 
interesting scenes in the tomb of Aba were 
copied in the days of Psammetichus I., who 
reigned in the Vllth century B.C. ; a period 
standing about midway between the time of the 
Vlth Dynasty and our own. In those days a 
prince of Thebes, Aba by name, was preparing 
for himself an elaborate tomb in the Theban 
necropolis; remembering that in the XIIthNome 
there was a finely painted chapel of a namesake 

of his, who had been an erpa prince like himself, 
he caused several scenes from it to be repro- 
duced on the walls of his own place of burial. He 
was moved to this, no doubt, partly because he 
was willing to claim this early nomarch as an 
ancestor, partly because he appreciated the un- 
usual merit and interest of the scenes, and largely 
also because it was the fashion of his sl^q to 
imitate the art of the Ancient Kingdom. 
Though the copy is far from being, in any 
scientific or artistic sense, a replica of the 
original, the enterprise and appreciation shown 
by Aba are deserving of all praise ; and, con- 
sidering the end in view, the closeness with 
which the original has been followed indicates 
no small respect for the ancient forms.^ 

The tombs seem to have been re-discovered 
by Mr. Harris of Alexandria in 1850, and to 

^ The tomb has been published by Y. ScheHi, Tomheaux 
thehainsy pp. 624, aqq. Excerpts are also to be found in 
KosBLLiNi, Man. Cio. ; Champollion, Jfon., and Not. 
p. 553; Lepsius, D. iii. 271a, 272a, b; BRUGScn, Recueily ii. 
plate Ixviii. The scenes in question have been recopied 
(Dec. 1901) for the present volume (plates xxiv. and xxv.), 
and their relation to the original are discussed in the 




have been again visited by him in 1 855.^ Sir 
Gurdner Wilkinson also paid a visit to the 
necropolis about tliis time, and his diaries con- 
tain copious extracts from the tomb of Zau. 
Brief information concerning them, gathered 
apparently from the tombs themselves, has for 
many years had a place in the standard guide 
books. Messrs. Petrie and Griffith also took 
notes in the northern necropolis in 1 886.^ In 
1890 copies of the longer and more legible 
inscriptions in the tomb of Zau were made by 
Professor Sayce and published.* The expedition 
sent out by the iVrchaeological Survey under the 
charge of Mr. Percy Newberry in the winter of 
1892 spent some time here, tracing the scenes 
in the tombs of Aba and Zau and taking notes 
of the more fragmentary records. Copies in 
colour of selected subjects were also made, and 
plans draMTi. The promise of publication was, 
however, never fulfilled. Some years later 
Professor Sayce again visited the southern 
group, and published additional inscriptions 
from the two large tombs.* The copies bear 
everywhere the mark of notes gathered under 
conditions which quite precluded accuracy or 
completeness; and the reader who compares 
them with the present tracings will probably 
agree that, great as was the service done by 
these articles in calling attention to the his- 
torical importance of these monuments, the 
record cannot be taken very seriously. A con- 
siderable part of the commentary which M. 
Maspero appended to the earlier article also 
loses its force, as it is based on a conclusion 
which a fuller publication of the records 
directly contradicts. 

1 Since the days of Wilkinson the tombs have been 
associated with Beni Mohammed el Knfar, but that village 
is several miles distant, nor is there any necessity to take it 
en route. The present title has therefore been adopted. 

3 I take the above information from Mr. Newberry's 
acoonnt, Arch, Report^ 1892-3, p. 14. 

* Bncueil de Travaux, xiii. p. 65. 

* Ibid., XX, p. 169. 

Tlie burial shafts in the tombs have been 
ransacked subsequently to 1893, with or with- 
out the sanction of the authorities, but assuredly 
by no competent person ; for the rubbish had 
been piled up against the painted walls. It is 
to be hoped that the labour of these treasure- 
seekers was thrown away. 

2. The Present Undertaking. 

As in 1899 the tombs still remained unpub- 
lished, it was proposed that this task should 
make part of my work for the Archaeological 
Survey in the winter of that year. Accordingly, 
after completing the work at Sheikh Said, I 
transferred my camp to this remote corner of 
the Nile Valley, reaching it on February 23rd, 
1900. The little hamlet of Deir el Gebrawi 
huddles round a church not long rebuilt on an 
ancient site, and has the distinction of being 
inhabited solely by Copts. The village being 
extremely unsavoury, I took up my abode in 
the uninscribed tomb No. 10, on the very 
summit of the cliff, and being here too far above 
the busy iniral life of the plain to be disturbed 
even by the curious, was able to devote the 
ensuing seven weeks to the task before me. 
By continuous labour the whole of the paintings 
were traced within this time, and all the 
material gathered which was thought necessary 
for a complete publication of both groups. The 
discovery of additional designs beneath the dirt 
which in places covered the walls, made a 
revision of the work of my predecessors necessary, 
and as their tracings had suffered considerably 
during the long interval, it was found more 
satisfactory to recopy the whole. Fortunately 
I was able to avail myself of some excellent 
plans of the larger inscribed tombs which had 
been drawn by Mr. John Newberry in 1893, 
and to which I had only to add the result of 
such small clearances as I made. I left the 
neighbourhood on the 13th of April, 1900. 

3. The Situation of toe Necropolis. 

The exact limits of the ancient nomes are 
little knoAvn, and the Xllth Nome certainly 
does not form an exception. But it may be 
said with some confidence that it must have 
included that broad expanse of fertile land, so 
rare on the eastern bank, which the receding 
hills here leave between them and the river, 
and of which Bbnub is the modem centre. It 
would extend, therefore, between Manfalut and 
Siut, but on the opposite bank. Slightly to the 
south of the former town, the eastern hills, 
which northward follow the river closely, fall 
back and take a course almost due east, the 
precipitous cliffs of the Gebel Qumeh marking 
the turning point. Eastward of this there is a 
slight bay in the line of hills, some three miles 
in breadth, from which a wady leads northward 
through the mountaius to the plain of Tell el 
Amarna. The Arab village of El Atiyat, 
nestling under the towering wall of rock, marks 
one end of the horn ; the tiny Coptic village 
of Deir el Gebrawi, standing on the edge of the 
cultivation, opposite the steep, but not equally 
precipitous, heights of the Gebel Marag, forms 
the other. Midway between the two, where 
the mountains have less elevation, lies half the 
necropolis of Deir el Gebn'iwi, the Northern 
Gkoup of tombs. Taking advantage of the fact 
that at this point the mountain slope was 
broken by a teiTace, from which the rest of the 
cliff rose almost perpendicularly, the ancient 
inliabitanta chose this site as a place of burial, 
and the tombs hewn in the wall of white stone 
are visible, like nessts in the rock, far over the 
green plain. After some time, and probably 
with the incoming of a new reigning house, the 
necropolis was shifted to a point slightly to the 
east of Deir el Gebrawi. Here again, almost at 
the summit of the lofty cliffs, there is a level 
surface backed by a low wall of rock. The 
tombs here, fifty-two in number, form the 

SouTHERiT Group.' Of these, the tombs of Aba 
and Zau are large and fully decorated, and 
seven others retain inscriptions,* Of 1 Oi tombs 
in the northern group only seven or eight 
show even a trace of inscription. 

The tomb of Aba, together ^vith all smaller 
tombs of the southern group, forms the 
subject of the present memoir. The painted 
chamber of Zau and the tombs of the northern 
group must be reserved for another volume. 

4. The Tombs of the Sodtheun Group. 

(Plate i.) 

As has just been remarked, the site of these 
tombs is on a terrace close under the summit of 
the mountain range, which here, opposite the 
hamlet of Deir el Gebrawi, towers very steeply 
above the cultivation and at a comparatively 
short distance from it. Unless the inaccessibility 
of the site, or the magnificent view over the 
rich country southwards to Siut which it 
commands, attracted the px-inces of the nome to 
this spot, there seems little else to recommend 
it. The stone is of poor quality, hard boulders 
again and again disfiguring the -work alike of 
ijuarryman and artist. The extent of any wall 
of rock too was very small, so that much 
material had to be cut away before the almost 
upright facade which was desired could be 
gained. Uut it seems almost a point of honour 
in the East that a change of rulers should be 
marked by a change of home, and it is not 
surprising that in Egypt this should be extended 
to the resting-place of the dead also. There 
was room here for the few princely tombs, and 
lesser men had to make the best of the site, 

' The groups might with almost efjaal coiTectnesH ho 
called western and eastern, but the designation adopted 
hest suits EgypU 

- Thb Hflserliou in Baedeker'tt E'jypl-, that thei-e are twelve 
inscribed torubs, appears to be without warrant. 

B 2 


often excavating their small chambers in mere 
shelves of rock. The tombs lie along the low 
cliff in which Aba and Zau had hewn their 
spacious chambers, and then range themselves 
round a natural ampliitheatre to the west, a 
gathering ground for the waters of occasional 
deluges, which have cut a deep channel down 
the cliff from this point. Besides the tombs 
shown on plate i., there are a few small 
uninscribed chambers low down the hillside, 
near the watercoui'se ; and also a few caves, 
some of them natural, further westward, on the 
slope of the hills, near a ruined brick chapel. 

As will be seen, these places of burial are 
generally small and rough, with but little 
exterior show. The interment was usually in a 
tiny chamber at the bottom of a shallow pit or 
shaft, less important members of the family or 
dependents being content with a little gallery 
hewn in the side of the tomb-chamber, or 
outside it altogether. Very few indeed could 
afford more than this, or thought of any other 
memorial than a tiny plastered and painted 
tablet containing a list of offerings, the banquet- 
ing scene, and a brief prayer. 

A rock site does not invite elaborate 
ai'chitecture, nor permit it without large 
expenditure of labour ; and as in the working 
of living stone the result may at any time be 
disfigured by the occurrence of natural faults, it 
is no wonder that the exteriors of the tombs, 
though still striving to imitate the facade of a 
brick-and-timber built house, are very simple, 
and often rough. In this respect, however, 
they compare imfavourably with the contem- 
porary tombs at Sheikh Said. The facades of 
even the largest tombs here are much inferior 
to similar tombs on that site, and show no trace 
of sculpture on the exterior ; they have departed 
much further from the typical work of the 
Ancient Kingdom in the sculptured figures of 
the entrance way, and the rock-cut statues 
which are so marked a feature of the Sheikh Said 
tombs are altogether absent. It was a transition 

period between decoration by sculpture and 
decoration by fresco painting. At Sheikh Said 
the latter was timidly employed (Tomb of 
Uau), and the use of bas-relief was not yet 
abandoned. In the southern tombs of Deir el 
GebrAwi that step has been taken. Sculpture 
has disappeared, except for some rough incised 
figures in the doorways, but fresco painting 
has become the medium for elaborate schemes 
of decoration. 

5. List of ToiMbs of the Southern Group. 

The fafades of the tombs are of three types, 
and where not stated to be otherwise, are formed 
with a slight batter. 

Type A. The rock face is here merely 
smoothed to a plane surface for a foot or so on 
either side the entrance and to a smaller 
distance above it. 

Type B. A projecting lintel band extends 
across the jambs immediately above the 

Type C. The jambs are double, the inner ones 
being recessed. The lintel extends over both. 

Small and low. A rough niche in the 
back wall. Floor not visible. Hewn 
in the sloping ground. 

Tomb of Hetepneb. See p. 24. 

Hewn in the cliff. Very rough. 
Breach into Tomb 4. 

Front worn away. Rough, low, and 

Back part of a gallery, or " mummy 

The excavation of the interior is 
scarcely begim. 

(Plans on Plates ii. and ii.a.) The 
cliff is cut far back to give a lofty 
facade. The tomb was made sub- 
sequently to the tomb of Aba, the 
little chamber of the latter being 









6. A. 

7. B. 





10. B. 

carefully avoided. It consists of a 
large square room, the walls of 
which have been carefully hewn, 
yet show no sign of inscription. 
Though the floor is not visible, the 
chamber is more than 11 feet in 
height ; but as the roomy gallery 
which runs out of the N. wall is 
thus left high in air, and a rough 
ledge of rock runs all along the E. 
wall about 7 feet from the ceiling, 
the floor must originally have been 
higher. There is a deep rebate all 
round the doorway within. 

Tomb of Aba (see PI. ii. et seqq.). 

(Plans on Plates ii. and ii.a.) The 
entrance shows no sign of a facade. 
The chamber is extremely rough 
within, and the partition wall on 
the E. has been broken through. 
Low doAvn in the W. comer of the 
back wall there is a passage leading 
down to an inner room, 45 inches 
high, in the floor of which is a 
breach into the vault of the tomb 
of Aba. 

(Plan on Plate xxii.) Square door- 
lintel. A tomb carefully hewn 
without and within, but bearing 
no trace of inscription. There is 
a rebate round the door inside, as 
also round the shrine recess in the 
N. wall. The floor is not visible, 
but a pit seems to occupy the 
whole recess, from which a passage 
more than 18 feet in length leads 
to the burial chamber, as in the 
tomb of Aba. On the back wall 
of the shrine are Coptic crosses and 
daubs in red paint. The fayade 
has a batter of 1 in 6. On the E. 
side of the approach is a tiny 
chamber at ground level, which 


may have been a separate place of 

11. (For plan see Plate i. and Vol. ii., 

Plate ii.) Nearly the whole of the 
front has fallen. The chamber 
is low and shapeless and the floor 
extremely irregular. Its excava- 
tion has caused the ruin of the 
S.B. corner of the tomb of Zau. 
Outside on the E. of the approach 
there is a niche which probably 
was made to hold some com- 
memorative tablet. 

12. A. Tomb of Zau. (For plans see Plate i. 

and Vol. ii., Plate ii.) 

13. C. A diminutive tomb, yet divided into 

two by a pilaster and false 
architrave. The east wall is ex- 
tremely rough and full of boulders. 
There are three or four shafts, of 
which only the northernmost is at 
present empty. This is 9 feet 
6 in. deep and expands below to 
the N.E., so as to form a little 
chamber at the bottom. 

14. B. (Plan on Plate xxi.) TombofUHA(?) 

See p. 24. 

15. (Plan on Plate xxi.) Its front is 

entirely broken away. It may have 
been merely a gallery, the low 
chamber to the W. being a separate 
burial place ; or the two may have 
formed one tomb. 

16. B. (Plan on Plate xxi.) Tomb of 

Tekhyt. See p. 25. 

17. A niche 20 inches high. Lower down 

the slope. 

18. B. Only the fa§ade has been completed ; 

the interior is hardly begun. 
19,20,21. (Plans on Plate xxii.) Small, low 

chambers. Their fronts and W. 
walls are broken down, and the 
floors covered with rubbish. 



22. B. Siiuare door-lintel. (Plans on Plate 


Front gone. Roughly hewn. Floor ^H 

sxii.) The lower part of the walls 

not visible. ^H 

of this tomb are broken away on 


Tomb of Senbskn, See p, 25. ^| 

both E. and W. It was originally 


Rough chamber excavated in shelving ^H 

rectangular in shape, but very in-e- 

rock. Facade broken away. ^H 

gularly hewn at the back, where 
a pit, now blocked with stones, 

30. A. 

A well-shaped tomb hewn in the over- ^| 

hanging cliff. Rough walls. Floor ^H 

appears to give entrance to a 

not visible. ^H 

burial chamber towards the north. 


Half the front destroyed. Very rough ^H 

The entrance is set much further 

at back. Floor not visible. ^| 

back in the cliff than its neighbours. 


(Plan on Plate xxii.). High in the ^M 

23. (Plan on Plate xxii.) A pit-tomb, 

cliff and reached by a sloping ^H 

entered from above and having a 

ascent. Rough outside and little ^H 

chamber to the north a few feet 

more than a cave within. The W. ^H 

from the mouth, so that it is on 

wall has been mud-plastered. The ^| 

the level of those around it. It is 

shaft opens 5 feet from the mouth ^H 

evidently earlier than these, for 

into a largish chamber, which is on ^H 

they have all avoided it ; yet so 

the level of Tomb 33, and now ^H 

narrowly that the thin partition 

accessible from it. ^H 

walls are now broken through on 

33. A. 

Square door lintel, (Flan on Plate ^H 

all sides. 

xxii.) TombofMEEDT. See p, 25. ^M 

24. (Plan on Plate xxii.) The front is 

34. B. 

Immediately over the doorway of '^H 

broken down. The low chamber 

Tomb 33, and on a level with ^H 

was provided with tivo short 

Tomb 32. A recess 3 feet high, ^| 

galleries running from the N. wall, 

2 feet broad and 4 feet deep. ^H 

but the sides are now broken 

Evidently earlier than the tomb ^H 

through in several places. There 

below, the construction of which ^H 

is a rebate round the eastern 

has removed its means of access, ^H 



(Plaii on Plate xxii.) A large rect- ^H 

20. B. (Plan on Plate xxii.) Extremely 

angular tomb, 6 feet high. The ^H 

irregular in shape, with very rough 

facade is nearly destroyed, There ^H 

W. and N. walls and uneven floor. 

are at least two burial shafts. An ^| 

There are two or three shafts (now 

entrance to Tomb 37 has been cut ^| 

full), and a curving gallery runs 

in the W. wall. On the E. wall is ^H 

from the N.E. corner. On the W, 

a plaster tablet, but the surface is ^H 

wall is a small plaster tablet, but 

gone. To the left of the entrance ^H 

nothing can be deciphered. The 

outside is a small gallery, which ^H 

entrance has a rebate round it 

must be cai-lier, as it has been ^H 


avoided. ^H 

26. A.. (Square lintel in doorway.) Floor 


(Plan on Plate xxii.) A shallow pit- ^H 

not \'isible. Tiny chamber with 

tomb with chamber to the N., ^H 

recess at the back. This and 

earlier than Tomb 37, the S. wall ^M 

Tomb 27 nre at a lower level. 


of which is interfered with by ^H 




38. A. 


41. A. 

42. A. 

43. 44. 


the chamber below (now nearly 

(Plan on Plate xxii.) Facade worn 
away. There is a shrine recess in 
the back wall with rebate all round. 
In the S.E. comer is a shaft which 
opens into a burial chamber on the 
N. side 4 feet from the mouth. The 
W. wall is irregular. 

Rough chamber excavated in a low 
slope. Floor not visible. 

Similar chamber. N. and E. walls 
very rough. 

Pit-tomb. Unfinished ? 

(Plan on Plate xxi.) Tomb of 
Nefeb-tep-wa. See p. 26. 

(Plan on Plate xxi.) Tomb of Nefer- 
NEF-KHETU. See p. 26. 

Two small and rough tombs in a 
dip of the hill, excavated in a 
rock surface with scarcely any 
slope, and so broken and buried 
that nothing more can be said of 

Pit-tomb, the chamber of which is 
reached 9 feet from the surface. 





(Plan on Plate xxi.) Far back on 
the summit of the hill. Now little 
more than a cave. Floor not 
visible. A modem wall of piled 
stones forms a little court in front. 

A small tomb nearly buried imder 
48. A. The back wall is now very rough. 

On the S. a chamber opens 7 feet 
below the ceiling, probably entered 
from a shallow pit ; but the tomb 
is too deep in rubbish to ascertain 

Rough facade. A rude niche in the 
back wall. Floor not visible. 

(Plan on Plate xxi.) Small, but well- 
formed chamber. The well is 
empty for 1 1 feet. 

(Plan on Plate xxi.) Perhaps un- 
finished, the small excavation being 
but rough. The facade is rude 
and unsymmetrical. 

(Upright fa9ade.) A well - hewn 
chamber, except that the back 
wall is rough, perhaps through 
decay. The floor is not visible. 


50. ^C. 

51. C. 

52. A. 




TOMB 8. 

Belonging to (|J (| Aba. 

(Plates I.— XX.) 

Titles (commencing with those on Plates III. 
and XVIIL in order) : — 

1. ^ Hereditary Prince. 

2. J /I\ J (I) (Chief) Lector. 

3. (1 ^v /8^e7?i-priest. 

4. 6 t^ Master of every kind of Tunic.^ 

5. 2£ f ^^^^* ^^^^^ ^^ *^® ^^°^® ^^ '^^^^• 

6. ^ ^ Superintendent of the South. 

7. ^ ^^ Superintendent of the two Gran- 


8. Jtk ^^ Superintendent of the two Fowling 


^- <^TT Superintendent of the 

10. — ® J?a-prince.^ 

11. <^ He of the Great Residence. 

12.* II Favoured of the Hand. 

13.* 6 ^ Director of the two Thrones. 


' Court Chamberlain and administrator of snmptniry 

2 Usually placed second only to the title er2>a. It is 
probably given the front place in the second row for 

* Titles not held by Zan-Shmaa, but by his son Zau. 

4.t } ^ Director of ... ^ 

5.t ^i I He who is in the Chamber. 

6. sm CUD He who belongs to Nekhen. 

7. \J% Great Chief of Nekheb. 

8.* ll y J ^ Chief of the Pillared Hall.* 
9.* vi^l Gate of Khonsu (?) * 

20.* °o° Khu'&{?y 

21.* 1^ Ruler of . . . ' 

22. "] I |fj Scribe of the Roll of the God 

(Temple Accountant ?). 
23.* & Y ^=37 T ^'^^^ Director of every Divine 


24. Ifr^ Staff of Hapi (Apis Bull). 

25. Q o .... 

s Cf . Mariette, Catalogue d'Ahydos^ 624. 

* But cf. Dabessy, Le Mastaba de Mera, p. 541. 

5 lb. p. 650, 664 vi^ I a . This and the previous 

title are often associated, but are separable. So Vol. ii., 
Plate xiii. 

6 Cf. 



Mariette, Cat. d^Ahydos, 525. 

' Cf. Le Mastaha de Mera, p. 523 ; Bent Hasan, i., 
Plate xvii. Titles 20 and 21 are perhaps connected, ^or 
the sacred emblem see priest's insignia, Mariette, Les 
Mastahaa, p. 465. 

8 Cf . Le Mastaha de Mera, pp. 550, 554, 669. 

t Titles not held by either Zau, but peculiar to Aba. 



26.* & ^ 1 1 1 He who has power over 6od8(?). 

27.* }|]]]'^^ Director of the dep6t8 of 
the Crown of Lower Egypt.^ 


\ — I 


perintendent of the distribution of 
divine offerings from the two Houses. 

2'- (lly]=f Ak-l! 


Priest of the Men-ankh Pjrramid of 

30. I n Governor of the Residence.' 

31. \^^ Royal ChanceUor. 

32. NT Sole Companion. 

33. ^® ^ Great Chief of the Dii-ef Nome. 

34.t ^ ^ ^ § (?) 

35.t ^^ Ad mer. Plate vi. 

36.t * ^ ffl ^ G^uiding (?) Star of Horus, 
Lord of Heaven.* Plate vi. 

in his Office, mighty in his Dignity.^ 
Plate vi. 


' Le Mastaha de Mera, pp. 523, 537, 550, 554, etc., where 


/www A^/^AA^ 

/vwvNA and other variants occur. 

* ^ ^ simply on Plate xviii. Note the reading 

for the nsnal 

^ The epithet . ^^ ^ -fl "true" is here sometimes 

applied to titles 30, 31, 32, but perhaps could equally well 
have been added to any other. 

* For the association of 35, 36, cf. Le Mastaha de Mera^ 
pp. 537, 554, 565, 569. It will have been noticed that 
there is considerable coincidence in r^;ard to rare titles 
between this tomb and that of Mera at Saqqareh. Perhaps 
Abydos was the native place of Mera and the scene of his 
earlier official career. 

^ Strangely enough, the animal is not here a goat but 
plainly an ass. The example supports von Cal ice's sug- 
gestion that the symbolism lies in the collar round the 
neck, not in the animal. 


PckD ^® ^^^^ ^® ^^^^ Secrets. 
Plate xix. 

QulZf A1!PI« CWefPriest 

of the Men-ankh Pyi'amid of Neferkara. 
Plate vii. 

40. 1 ^ fli First after the King. Plate vii. 

Names and Titles of his family : — 

Wife. — Rahenem, whose good name is 
Henema. Plates xii., xviii. 
" Sole Ornament of the King." 
" Lady of the King." 
" Acquaintance of the King." 
"Priestess of Hathor, deservmg 
before her mistress." 

Daughters. — (1) Tekhyt. Plates iii., xvii. 

" Lady of the King." 
" Ornament of the King." 

(2) Mertab. Plate xvii. 
" Lady of the Kmg." 

(3) Henut. Plates v., xvii. 
" Lady of the King." 

" Sole Ornament of the King." 

(4) Serezyt. Plate xvii. 

" Sole Ornament of the King." 

Sons. — ( 1 ) Zau, whose good name is Shmaa. 

" Eldest." Plates v., xv. 
" Royal Chancellor." 
" Governor of the Residence." 
" Sole Companion." 
"Great Chief of the Bu-ef 

" Lector." 

(2) Khua. Plates iii., xv. 

" Governor of the Residence." 
" Sole Companion." 
" Lector." 

(3) Aba. " Eldest." Plate iii. 

" Governor of the Residence." 
" Sole Companion." 
" Lector." 



(4) Zau. Plates xv., xviii. 

" (Official) of the Great House, 
Semsu hayty 

(5) Aba. Plate xvi. 

• " Sole Companion." 

(6) Zau. Plates iii., xvi. 
" Sole Companion." 

(7) Ada. Plates iii., xvi. 
" Sole Companion." 

Brothei\ — Zau. Plates iii., xi. 

"(Official) of the Great House, 
Semsu hayt.^* 

As ^vill be seen from Plate ii.a, the facade 
of the Tomb of Aba is of the simplest type. 
The rock slope has been cut back, so as to 
give an elevation with slight batter. Then, for 
a considerable space in the centre, the rock has 
been a little more deeply recessed, leaving a 
broad jamb on either side of the doorway and 
a clear space above it below the projecting 
band of stone, which represents the lintel of 
the traditional fa9ade. The recessed face is 
almost perpendicular. The exterior is not 
adorned by sculpture, save that low down on 
the right-hand jamb a " chief scribe " (?) of the 
Middle Kingdom, named Amenemhat, has re- 
corded his name above a little niche, in which 
an inscribed tablet, or other memorial, may 
have been placed (Plate xxiii.). 

There is a deep rebate all round the doorway 
within. Both sides of the entrance (A and B, 
Plate ii.) are sculptured with figures of Aba 
and his wife, but the work, besides being of 
very rough execution, is now greatly damaged. 
The method adopted is that of low relief on a 
sunk surface (relief en creux\ which is imusual 
at this period. The outline of the figures also 
is scarcely of the familiar type of the Old 
Kingdom, and the same may be said of the 
attitude of the figure of Zau in the doorway of 
the neighbouring tomb. But this may only 
indicate that the feeling for that type of sculp- 

ture had already passed, or was passing away. 
On the right (A) a male figure with protruding 
stomach stands facing outwards, wearing the 
simple timic, short wig and collar. A female 
figure, of equal height, in short wig and the cus- 
tomary dress, stands behind him and embraces 
him with her left arm. A Coptic cross and a 
hieratic graffito occupy the space above.^ On 
the left (B) is a somewhat similar group. The 
female figure, which is here shown by a column 
of hieroglyphs above to be that of " his beloved 
wife, the Sole Royal Ornament, the deserving 
Henema" (?), is of much smaller size. She 
carries a stem of papyrus, or a sceptre of that 
form (see Vol. ii., Plates vi. and x.). Of the 
lines of hieroglyphs over the head of the male 
figure parts of two remain (PI. xxiii.), (1) yw r 
sbt hr-fm ntr.^ (2) "... Rahenem (?) whom 
he loves ... he who does what is commanded, 
Aba" (?). A " servant of the Ka," named Asa 
(Assa?), seems to have faced the figure of 

The tomb consists of a large oblong chamber, 
having a deep recess in the back wall, which 
served as a shrine or special place of worship ; 
as may be judged from the representations and 
false doors on each of its walls. Provision is 
made for burial in at least three places in the 
tomb ; the rubbish which encumbers parts of 
the floor may possibly conceal others. The 
main vault is reached by a long gallery which 
extends northwards^ from the back of the 
shrine, beginning as a depression in the floor. 
Descending gently, it terminates twenty-eight 
feet from the mouth in a level passage; and 
here a pit for burial, representing a sunk 

^ As the ink of these hieratic graffiti is invariably almost 
obliterated by time, they can only be satisfactorily read or 
copied by an expert in this script. I shall, therefore, note 
their occurrence in the hope that before long they will be 
made the object of separate study. 

2 Cf. Griffith, SitU ; Tomb iv., 1. 78 ; Tomb iii., 1. 60. 

s For convenience of description, throughout the volume 
the tomb is supposed to face directly south. 


sarcophn^s, is found in a recess on the left side,' 
A second vault is entered from a shallo-w pit 
in the north-weat corner of the main chamber, 
from which a passage runs westward for a short 
distance. The vault is practically only a con- 
tinuation of this low passage, at right angles to 
its former direction. It is almost empty. A 
representation and list of offerings in honour 
of Aba's wife Henenia (Plate ix.), close to the 
mouth of the pit, indicates that this was her 
place of burial. A similar provision for burial 
is made on the opposite side of the chamber, 
but the entrance is now Mocked with rubbish. 
Owing to the proximity of the next tomb, the 
vault to which the pit gives access cannot be 
larger than the rough little chamber which has 
been added on this side as an annexe to the 
large room. A short gallery at floor level in 
the centre of the western part of the north 
wall may also have received a coffin. 

Though the tomb of Aba iu its present state 
resembles that of Zau, when complete it must 
have been substantially different : an inch or so 
of two square pillars still depends from the 
roof, and the Hue of a false architrave connects 
them with each other and with a corresponding 
pilaster on the E. wall, while a line on the floor 
roughly corresponds to these traces above ; for 
from this point backwards the floor of the 
chamber is several inches higher, being reached 
by an ascending slope in the middle of the 
room. Thus the two pillars, as seen from 
the entrance, would have appeared to be con- 
nected by an architrave above and a dwarf wall 
below.^ Although there is no trace of a corre- 
sponding pilaster on the W. side, it was evidently 
the original plan that two pillars should support 
the roof, and divide the room into two halves 

' This Bloping gallery maj be a reminiscence from brick 
mostabos such as those of Ada I. and other princes at 

* The rabbish in the western half of the chamber did not 
allow a section of the floor to be taken on this side. 

longitudinally. The ceiling is very irregularly 
hewn, dropping suddenly in the S.W. comer, 
and growing gradually higher towards the N.E, 
The large boulders occurring in the rock, which 
in several places interfere with the construction 
and decoration of the tomb, may partly account 
for this. 

The tomb is adorned with paintings on the 
upper part of all its avails with the exception 
of the N. half of the E. wall, where a large 
boulder and the doorway of the small chamber 
left scarcely any space available. The paintings 
are executed on a surface of fine plaster, so 
excellently united with the rock surface that 
there are few places where it has fallen away. 
The aspect of the paintings is very different 
from those in the tomb of Zau and much less 
pleasing, the background being of that dark 
indigo hue which renders other colours almost 
invisible at any distance. Close and repeated 
scrutiny is necessary in order to secure all the 
detail. The paintings do not appear to have 
received any wilful damage in modem times ; 
but the bats have destroyed the upper part of 
the scenes in the west half of the N. wall, and 
the E. wall with the east end of the S. wall 
have also greatly suffered from decay. A wide 
breach made in the partition wall between this 
tomb and No. 9 on the west, has destroyed a 
great part of the scenes at that point. 

No order can be detected in the assignment 
of the various scenes to their respective walls, 
except that the walls of the shrine have been 
reserved for the subjects which were most 
closely concerned with the cult of the dead, and 
therefore most indispensable. For the main 
chamber were reserved the scenes which were 
less directly connected with the maintenance 
of the offerings. Here are depicted the culti- 
vation of the soil, the care of domestic animals 
and birds, the capture of game, fish, and fowl, 
the administration of the estate and the super- 
vision of the craftsmen whose handiwork was 
serviceable to the dead as well as to the living ; 



finally, the funeral ceremonies, and the record 
of rank and wealth. 

South Wall. East Half. (Plates iii. 

and iv.). 

The scene is thus characterized : — 

" Seeing the work of the field, the capture of 
fish, the spearing. . . ." 

Aba, in short sporting tunic, and with a 
holiday fillet bound round his head, stands on 
the alert in a large papyrus canoe, which has 
been urged through the thick trailing water- 
weeds (red, with green leaves, and a blue disc 
at the point of junction). It was not within 
the power of the artist to depict the rapid 
sequence of movement from the light poising 
of the spear on the finger-tips to the moment 
when, driven by the forefinger to its aim, it is 
raised in triumph with its double booty secure 
upon the prongs. Yet he has so depicted the 
final attitude as to suggest the action which 
preceded. As the fish were speared when in 
the water beneath, he simply encloses them in 
a mass of rippled blue. Aba's " eldest and 
beloved son" Zau is depicted in front of his 
father, in precisely the same dress and attitude; 
nor is his good fortune or skill in sport any less. 
Room is found in the crowded boat also for Aba's 
wife Henema and his daughter Tekhyt. Their 
hair is bound with fillets, and the daughter is 
enjoying the fragrance of a lotus-flower. 

The four younger sons and the brother of 
Aba are seen behind, each holding a bird as if 
for presentation. It is evident that the family 
of Aba is introduced, not because they used to 
accompany him in this way on his sporting 
excursions, nor only in order to give importance 
to his figure here. Though the dead man had 
done with sport, he still had an interest in the 
spoils of living sportsmen. Aba, who probably 
caused the paintings to be executed while life 
still permitted him such pui'suits, followed a 
natural instinct in making himself the central 

figure of the scene ; but the group of male 
relations holding out offbrings of game not 
directly connected with the sport depicted, 
suggests that the picture is really a reminder to 
his posterity of the offerings offish and wildfowl 
due to the dead. If such pictures disposed the 
son and the remoter members of the family to 
feel the towering figure of the dead asserting 
its undiminished claims even in their sport, 
their place in tomb decoration needs no other 

These members of the family are ranked in 
order of importance. Khua, the second son, is 
immediately behind his father, and near him on 
the further side (above) is Aba, who is also 
styled "eldest." Behind them again is a 
brother of Aba, Zau. By his side (above) is 
still another Zau, and a son Ada follows.^ 

Fishing in the marshes was, however, more 
than a pastime of nobles. There is therefore 
added here, as generally, the scene in which the 
great drag-net, loaded below by stones tied to 
the edge and supported above by floats of some 
kind (yellow), is drawn to land filled with 
the fish and water-plants which have become 
entangled in it. Two companies of four men 
each, stationed on the bank at some distance 
from each other, have caused the net to sweep 
the pool by drawing its ends towards the shore 

* Plates XV., xvi. add yet a third sonZan to the list, who 
bears the pecaliar title given to the brother. We may 
snspect, therefore, that this is a mistake (though repeated 
on Plate xviii). To avoid still having two sons named Zau 
and two named Aba in the family, we might take it that 
the Zan, Aba, and Ada behind the brother are his sons, 
not Aba*s. Bat the difficalty is a modem creation ; to the 
Egyptian apparently there was none, thoagh cases so flagrant 
as this do not often occar. In a tomb at Aswan three 
sons named Heqab are distingaished as *' Heqab *' simply, 
"the middle Heqab," and "the little Heqab" (Budge, 
P.S.B.A., 1887, page 33). As Dr. Walker points oat to me, 
boys at oar pablic schools are not assigned any greater 
measare of identity. The " good name " may have been 
added at the patting on of the g^irdle as an acknowledgment 
of personality. 


and towards one another. The circnit is now 
completed, and wliile three at each eud drag the 
net on sliore, one is " closing the mouth of the 
net . . .", that none of the fish may escape. As, 
strictly speaking, the net is in the pool still, the 
water in it is indicated by broad horizontal 
bands of a daiker blue. Those who haul are 
provided with a woven shoulder strap, which 
they attach to the cable, and so ensure a much 
more effective hold upon it.' To the left of 
these are three men poling a cauoe along, and in 
the register below fishing with the hand-net is 
sho^vn. The artist has placed within tins net 
specimens of sis of the eight species of fish 
which can be distinguished in the water here. 
{For details see Plate xxi.) The canoe in wliich 
the fisherman and his comrade stand is of a less 
usual shape, only the stern being elevated. 

Along the whole length of the scene is a 
shallow strip of water, marked originally by 
vertical zig-zag lines of darker blue. It is 
occupied by fish, crocodiles, and hippopotamus, 
each of which is given the full size allowed by 
the depth of the water, regardless of the 
immense natural disproportions. The fish are 
admirably drawn, and seem to have been skil- 
fully painted also, though tliere was probably 
only a rough approximation to nature in this 
respect. An artistic touch is also added by the 
introduction of lotus flowers and buds into the 
vacant spaces. In its oiiginal brightness of 
colour this strip of water must have supplied 
a charming border to the rest of the design. 

The upper part of the wall here is occupied 
by a seated figure of Aba, before \vhom eight 
men stand in respectful attitudes, while fresh 
and cured fish are presented to him. The artist 
could not refrain from introducing also the 

' See Sheikh SaUl, plate xii. ; El Ilerghc!,, i, plate Jixii, 
In another case the means of attaching tlie shonldei' ati-ap 
to the rope is shown. European iishermea still use a 
similar couLriv&nce. 

favourite subject of the ijuarrel between crews 
of passing boats, although it intrudes very 
awkwardly bet^vceu two men who are engaged 
in cutting open the fish on a board, cleaning 
them and spreading them in the sun to dry. 
(See Plate xx. for the coloured reproduction.) 
" Cutting open fish " is the legend attached to 
this action ; that over the men who are sparring 
is " Strike, strike . . . boatmen." A man, bearing 
on his shoulders a yoke from which fish hang, 
faces Aba. The superscription is not decipher- 
able, but the general iuteutiou is indicated 
above by the words "for the Ka of the Hn- 
prince Aba." Only so much of the signs 
attached to the figures in the top register 
remains as enables a "superintendent of writing" 
to be identified. The inscription above describes 
them as " liis brethren (?) of the place of his 
heart, who do his pleasure, (deserving) before 
their masters." 

SuuTU Wall, West Half (Plates v. and vi.). 

This is devoted to the corresponding subject 
of fowling in the marehes. The boat, the water 
weeds, the inhabitants of the pool, are almost 
exactly similar. The figure of Aba differs only 
in the action of the arms, his right hand being 
held aloft in the act of hurling the throw-stick 
into the dense mass of birds which rise out of 
the thicket of papyrus as the boat is pushed 
towards it, filling the air with petals, struck by 
their wings from the flowering plants. In his 
left hand Aba holds two birds which he has 
secured.^ Two other tigui-es face him, his son 
Khua and his brother Zau (?), each holding 
birds towards him. Henut is here the daughter 
■who accompanies her mother. The birds liave 
to reckon not only with the human invaders of 
their quiet breeding places, but also with the 

- Tu be res(<>red fixim the ooi-i'espondlng tigure of hia son 
ii&u who rttuuds on the prow. 


little genet-cats which make thcif way up the 
slender reeds, and pillage the eggs and young 
The introduction of this incident was no doubt 
due to the feeling for nature in some past 
master of the craft, and the approval of 
succeeding generations of copyists is shown by 
its almost invariable inclusion in the scene. The 
descriptive column runs, "The prince . . . Aha 
surveying the laboui* of the fields, traversing 
the backwaters, bringing down the nestlings (?) 
and birds with the throwstick." ' 

Behind the figure of Aba are represented (1) 
men bringing the produce of the marsh lands, 
birds and cattle ; (2) the occupants of a canoe 
practising with the quarter-staff (?) ; (3) bearers 
of birds and flowers being ferried across the 
pool by comrades ; (4) a man carrying a calf 
upon his back, and another with his stalf of 
office, being transported in fishing punts, one 
of which is poled along, the other paddled. A 
phrase common in such ferrying scenes is wi'itten 
above — 


" It is a herdsman whose face is alive with 
regard to the pool " (i.e. who is on tlie alert for 
crocodiles, etc.). The rest of the wall is occupied 
by a second portion of the scene, which is turned 
towards a sitting figure of Aba. His head is 
bound ivith a fillet, and he wears the close- 
fitting tunic. 

The netting of birds, which ordinarily accom- 
panies the scene just described, is relegated to 
the top of the wall, and seems to have been 
unintelligently copied from a scene in whiih the 
net was to the left hand ; for the man who 
gives the signal by means of a cloth is behind 
instead of in front of his comrades, and is 
receiving no attention. The next scene shows 

' For the words used cf. L.D. ii. 61. See hIbo Levi 
Voeah^rio, Snppl. il., p. 62, for referenceB for iLe word 

three groups engaged iu gathering fruit from 
trees. From the context it might be supposed 
that these were a wild growth, but in a similar 
scene in the tomb of Asa the tree evidently 
beat's figs or pomegranates, and stands among 
trellised vines (Vol. ii., Plate xvii.). The 
three registers below show great bundles of 
papyrus stems being carried away, and men, 
loaded with their booty of wildfowl, lotus 
flowers and sacks (of green fodder?), being 
ferried over the water. During the passage an 
osier fish-trap which had been laid previously 
in the water is raised to the surface. " lie- 
moving the fish-trap."- Over the second boat 
is "Paddling towards (?) the bull." The 
animal referred to is seen below, but must be 
taken in connection with the boat in Plate v. 
The cattle are thus seen not to be under the 
water, as at fii-st appears, liut wading through 
it ; the calf of the herd, as usual, is supported 
by its forelegs by the man in the stem of the 
boat. The inscription, which no doubt referred 
to the aquatic enemy who is lying in force below, 
is obliterated. On the extreme right two men 
are fishing from a punt. One is evidently 
angling, the other, who is thi-owiug his weight 
on a line, may be assisting his comrades along- 
side to raise the fish-trap, for success with the 
hook does not yet seem assured to him. 

West Wall (Plates viii., ix., and x). 

Three subjects are shown on this wall, so far as we 
can judge from that portion of it which the great 
breach has spared. On the right (Plate viii.) 
Aba sits to attend to the management of his 
property, and receive reports. The sitting is 
apparently held in the open court of the resi- 
dence, for the fullers of cloth ai-e busy with 
their occupation, and musicians are also present 

• Bead e=5^ I followed by the picture eign. So ii 
the tombs of Thy and Kogenma at Snqqureh. 


to relieve the tedium of business. A second 
scene is contained in the two ui>per registers of 
the left half of the wall. Aba is being carried 
in state in a roofed litter borne on staves by 
attendants. He carries the scourge as an 
emblem of authority, and is preceded and 
followed by two servants carrying flabella. 
(See Plate x. and Vol. U., Plate viii.) These 
instruments appear to consist of a rectangular 
frame can-ied at the head of a long pole and 
having a white fringe attached to one side. As 
the worn inscription over the bearers ends with 
the words "They say," their customary chant 
was probably written under the litter, as in the 
corresponding scene in the tomb of Zau {Vol. ii., 
Plate viii.). In front of the palanrjuiu a band 
of male and female dancers march with dance 
and song, headed by " the steward, superin- 
tendent of the toilette bag (?), superintendent 
of ... . who is in the heart of his master 

" ' Six or more male singers follow, 

clapping their hands, while behind or beside 
them dancing girls perform in couples, headed 
by a leader who executes a pas seul. These per- 
formers are dressed in an apron resembling that 
worn by the half-nude fishermen, and have the 
professional headgear {a red ball or disc attached 
to the long tress), which seems to be an exag- 
gerated imitation of the mode adopted for little 
girls,^ This scene is clearly severed from that 
on the right by means of a border, and it 
seems equally separate in subject from the three 
registers below, which exhibit the funeral 
procession by land and water. The honours 
paid to the prince when carried on his tours of 
inspection, and the last honours paid to his 
body as he was borne to his tomb would seem 
very closely allied in the Egyptian mind. The 
head of the procession is seen on Plate viii., but 

' Hia iigare was at first drawn with arms hanging 
respeotfully, as if Alia was before him ; but this attitnde was 
afterwards corrected to suit the case. 

- Cf. Von Bisshig, A.Z. 18ii9, pp. 75 teqq. 

the accompauying inscription cannot be made 
out. The end of the scene shows the dragging 
of the bier, which consists of a wooden coffer 
set under a canopy and mounted on a sledge. 
It is drawn by embalmers, lectors, and others,* 
and during the passage incense is burnt before 

it. Above is " in every place of his, 

he who is deserving before the great God, 
Aba." The transport of the procession by water 
is seen below. A funeral barge containing a 
chest set under a canopy is being towed by a 
sailing ship, but has also its own steersman and 
pilot, with one priest (?). The same sul)ject is 
repeated below, where the barge carries the 
bier and a small coffer. The embahner and 
professional mourning woman sit in the bow. 
Of the sailing ship only the hind part remains, 
where a sailor sits on a staging in the high 
stern, holding the ropes which pull the yard in 
either direction. Below him is the steersman, 
who turns the heavy steering oar by means of 
a tiller. Three passengers are seen in the upper 

Plate VIII. The subject here is divided 
into five registers, of which the two upper 
relate, as is stated, to " giving the order for 
taking stock of the tomb-estate." Three scribes, 
" trusty before their master," their little vessels 
of ink or water set on stands before them by 
their palettes, and a spare pen behind the ear, 
write busily on tablets. Behind them we 
see " the bringing of the superintendent of 
gangs to the great reckoning." The ushers are 
bringing forward the unhappy foremen who arc 
responsible for the profits made by their depart- 
ments and ivho, being determined, like the 
Egyptian fellah of a few years back, to pay no 
more than pain or fear extorts from tbem, have 
to be prepared by rough treatment for exami- 
nation at the hands of their lord. Two or three 

* The cord by wliich it is being drawn and whifh pajwed 
tbruugh the right liands of the men is almuet ublilerutcd. 


ushers seem to be needed to reduce the stubborn 
peasant to a proper appreciation of the position ; 
but as he is pushed to the front he becomes 
more tractable and at length is seen in a 
Bupplicating position before the official, who, 
whether on his own account or his master's. Las 
only one reply, " Tell me what thou ^ivest.''' 
The second row shows the bastinado. First 
there is a man standing with a stick ; a short 
defaced inscription is before him. Next a 
peasant is being thrown down and beaten by a 
man with a short staff. The inscription looks 
like " forming an embrace." Then follows the 
punishment of a prosti'ate man with staves 
terminating in hands, and a group of a man 
apparently being i-oughly raised from the ground 
by tvro persons after a severe beating. The 
obsciu'e inscriptions also probably refer to these 
groups : '* Beatmg -with, the y("'^-3tick " is fairly 
clear; another occurring twice is possibly 
" Beating is its name, it produces pleasure of 
heart ! " * We also see a reference to " the 
voice of a magistrate." It seems that the 
delinquent on the ground is being I'oundly 
abused, " Thou \vhoni the two houses of his 

master hate ! whom liis mistress ! 

wliom his master ! " Lastly we see 

" the bringing of the superintendent of gangs to 
the reckoning." The poor wretch, who wears a 
characteristic apron as in the top row, is being 
pushed and hauled forward in the moat un- 
ceremonious way. 

In the third register the fullei-s are occupied 
with their work regardlesij of the presence of 
their master. The scene has evidently little or 
no connection with the rest of the picture. On 

' A sign has been omitted in the plate. 

R«ftd ^^ 


^ PoBBibly Neaem-ab may be the name of the liot«r, as in 
the bastinado scene in tlie tomb of Mera, where pntiiBbment, 
not execntion, is evidently depicted (Daresay, Mastalm de 
Mem. p. 6bl). 

tlie left a man is wringing (?) a roll of thread or 
cloth. " Binding (?) cloth of beautiful fine 
linen." " Over two men who hold a length of 
thread or cloth is written, " Folding up a great 
web." Beneath is a pile of pieces and a chest (?). 
The next pair of workers seem to be folding 
a piece of cloth to add to the pile below, the 
action being described as '* Spreading out a 

great and excellent " Over the last 

pair, who are carrying or stretching a piece of 
cloth, is, " Fullei-s of the tomb-estate." 

In the lowest register* is a row of seven 
harpists, whose presence and occupation would 
not, perhaps, to the oriental mind seem in- 
congruous with the judicial scenes shown above. 
A jar of beer has been provided for them. 

A large flint uodide has interfered with the 
excavation of the N.W. corner of the chamber 
and the artist has been obliged to provide a 
small appendix to the scenes both on this and on 
the N. wall (Plates is. and xii.). It is repeated 
on both in an almost identical form, the subject 
having no connection with the scenes on either 
wall, but having reference perhaps to the burial 
place of Henema below. In the upper register 
offei"ings are seen piled on tables or contained 
in jars. Below, the carcase of a goat, which is 
hanging from the branch of a tree, is being 
skinned. '' Cut it up and make it come," 
seems to be the injunction, and the answer, " I 
am doing according to thy pleasure." A man 
who is described as " A toml)-cook performing 
his duty," is cutting up meat on a board, while a 
comrade stirs the joints which are being cooked 
in a cauldron over a brazier. He remarks, 
" These are done (V) " In the lowest register 
the butcher is cutting up the carcase of an 
ox. One man brings a bowl for the blood, 

ly four registere here, instead of five aa 

eason for tltia rednction in tlie height of 

t of the toDib ia not very obvioua. 

the pictures in thiit 


another holds the heart in his hand and says, 
" I am offering a great and delicate portion." 

North Wall, W. Side (Plates xi. and sii.). 

Field scenes are hero represented, tlic figure 
of Aba in the centre dividing the picture iuto 
its two natural parts, the tending of animals 
and the raising of crops. Tlie subdivision of 
the former subject is characteristic of Egypt. 
Every princely estate, probably, extended from 
the Nile to the mountains, thus taking in its 
proper " hinterland " of waste land or mere, 
and of desert. We have seen that the fish and 
fowl to be found in the former ^vere an im- 
portant item of food-supply : the wild animals 
found in the desert were so in no less a 
degree, and were not only hunted for present 
use but captured alive and fattened In the 
stalls. Hence while the lower registers here 
{corresponding to the foreground in the land- 
scape) are occupied with the breeding of 
domestic animals, the two topmost (farthest) 
scenes exhibit the fauna of the desert. A deep 
band coloured red to represent the sand leaves 
no doubt as to the habitat of the animals. 
They are represented in their natural state, 
breeding, grazing, and falling a prey to the 
king of the desert. Only in the right-hand 
comer is the hunter seen loosing his hounds or 
discharging his arrow at the gazelles. The 
desert was a stockyard rather than a sporting 
ground to the Egyptian. The top of the picture 
has suffered greatly, but most of the animals 
can still be recognized. In front is a lion 
which with upraised paw majestically crushes 
an antelope, whose slim legs break under the 
terrible stroke. A lioness or cheetah follows 
(as in the tomb at Thebes). A jackal or fox 
is shown above (i.e. beyond). Two or three 
oryxes, whose name, mahcr., is written above 
them, face to the right, and are preceded by a 
hedgehog. Above is a fox, followed by two (?) 
gazelles, one of which, perhaps, is being dragged 

I down by a dog. Another below seems to' be 
sinking to the ground, pierced through the 
neck by an arrow, or brought down by the 
hound behind. In the register below is " a 
lion bringing down a gazelle," as we read 
above. Behind, gazelles (of both sexes, as we 
are informed) are grazing on the scanty 
herbage. Two wild cattle, " s»m," two bubales 
(shesau), and two ibexes follow. The latter are 
incorrectly termed " henen," a name elsewhere 
reserved for the antlered stag. This animal 
would seem to have been less weE known than 
other kinds, and the name niia was not the 
only one applied to it. (Ptahhetep, ii., note 
p. 16). 

A registration of the domestic cattle is being 
made. "The scribe and steward who is in the 
heart of bis master Sena," writes the total on a 
tablet, which the convenient rules of Egyptian 
perspective enable us to peruse. It records 

" the of oxen and goats 32,400," 

(Plate xsi.). A servant leads forward the 
finest of the herd, '* an ox, great and beautiful." 
Another assists in the delivery of a calf, while 
his superior, with ready cudgel, looks on at 
"the beautiful cow calving." Each of these 
lower registers opens with a similar gi'oup, but 
behind it in the middle row we are shown two 
rival bulls in combat, whom the herdsman is 
" separating "(?). One animal has lifted the 
other completely from the ground, and the 
rolling muscles of his thick neck show how 
capable he is of the feat. " A bull fight " and 
" a bull covering '' are the titles given to this 
and to the nest group. In the lowest register 
a cow is being milked into a vessel : her hind- 
legs are tied by way of precaution and the 
vessel is steadied by a comrade. Finally, goats 
are seen grazing on herbs or bushes, breeding, 
walking with their young to new pasture or 
butting one another, as their nature is. The 
descriptive column in front of these scenes — 
" seeing the animals of the desert, and the good 
tending of cattle for the Ka of the ffa-prince 


Aba" — applies to the presence of Aba 

who leans restfully upon his staff as if prepared 
for a long review. He wears sandals, probably 
to protect his feet on the rough field paths. He 
is accompanied by his wife, his two eldest 
sons {?), and his brother Zau. The "superin- 
tendent of the servants of the Ka, who does 
his lord's pleasure, Usera " approaches with a 
gift. In front, as if to redeem the picture from 
appearing a mere reminiscence of life and give 
it religious significance, is a figure " making 
incense " by igniting it or stirring it in a dish. 
He is " the superintendent of the toilette (?)' 
who does bis lord's pleasure, Shmaa.'' 

The scenes of agriculture are surveyed by 
Aba and bis wife, who, dressed in their best, sit 
on a couch side by side. The general iuscrip- 
tioD is " (Seeing) the ploughing, the gathering 
of flax, the reaping and carrying and all pleasant 
festivals of that which belongeth to a day, for 
the ifa of the prince . . , . Aba."* The sowing 
and ploughing evidently occupied the two top- 
most registers, the gathering of flax is seen in 
the third, the reaping of wheat in the fourth. 
The binding of the sheaves and their carriage in 
rope nets on the backs of asses is sboivn below, 
and finally, the stacking of the grain, and the 
two droves of oxen and of asses which are to 
tread it out on the threshing-floor. 

The appended scene has already been com- 
mented on in connection with the west wall, 
where a fuller form of it appears. On this wall 
a second appendix (Plate ix.), added below, 
comprises a list of offerings and a small scene 
in which Henema sits before the banqueting 
table, and a servant offers incense. It may be 
gathered from this that Henema was buried in 
the vault which opens immediately below. 

I (T^ has been correct to ^ 

* See the macriptiott in the tomb of Zat 

North Wall, K. Side (Plates xiii.— xvi.). 

in contrast with the pastoral occupations on 
the west side, the work of the craftsmen is here 
sho^vn, whether it is exercised within doors or 
in the open air, as in the case of the ship- 
builders and others. Aba, who wears the 
stiffened tunic, sits under a light canopy to 
view the busy scene, which is thus described ; 
" Seeing every kind of laboui- in the workshop 
of the artificers, in the hands of every artificer, 
indoor or outdoor, and the assessment of the 
handiwork of every artificer by the scribes of 
his tomb-estate ; also the making of the plans 
of every kind of labour .... the Governor 
of the Residence, Royal Chancellor, sole com- 
panion in verity, deserving before Mati through 
love, Aba." 

Registers 1 and 2. — Workers in Stone and 
Precious Metals — Carpentebs. 

The process of grinding out the interior of 
large stone vases by means of a kind of centre- 
bit, is shown firet in place as it was earliest 
among Egyptian achievements. The extra- 
ordinary mastery of this art which the pre- 
historic Egyptians possessed seems reflected in 
the employment of the picture of this drill as 
word-sign for " craftsman," stone-working being 
then confessedly the craft par excellence. The 
tool consisted of an upright rod, weighted near 
the top with two stones, which were loosely 
lashed to the stem, and so gave great momentum 
to the tool when rapidly revolved. The boring 
was done by a blade with cutting edges at both 
ends, which was set horizontally across the 
bottom of the rod, the diameter of the cyhnder 
removed by it varying with the length of the 
blade employed.' The stem, being steadied in 
the middle by one band, was revolved by a 

' See BoRCHiBDT, A.Z. for 1897, p. 107. 


curved crank at the top, or, in later times, by 
the improved method adopted in our own centre- 
bits. One workman here is actually using the 
tool;^ two othere are exhibiting specimens of 
their handiwork, further examples of which are 
shown near them. Over three vases in a stand 
set in front is the inscription, " Making the 
offering of the craftsman and lector."' Over each 
workman is the word liemti, "artificer," or more 
specifically, " worker in stone." Except on 
the monuments and in vases of small size, the 
shapes of the vessels are not familiar ; possibly 
the dimensions are commonly exaggerated in 
these scenes. From the colour and markings 
the material seems to be alabaster, which is 
also otherwise probable. Three other vases in 
a stand in the loiver register appear to belong 
to this scene. The legend above them seems to 
be '* Polishing hard stone vases, (?) " but no cor- 
responding action is shown. Hard stone was 
reckoned a precious material, and the dwarfs, 
therefore, who were in charge of the jewellery, 
are quite in place here. The action of the two 
groups appears identical, but over one is the 
descriptive note, " Threading (?) a collar " ' ; 
over the other " Furbishing (?) a collar." 
Collars of various shapes are spread out on 
stands above. 

The remaining part of the two registers is 
occupied by the workers in wood (Plate xiv.), 
whether cabinet makers or wood-carvers. The 
first two groups above represent two men 
- rubbing or planing chests. The inscription 
informs us that in the one case they are " beat- 
ing (?) with sent * on furniture (?) belonging to 

^ So in ViBET, Itekltmara, plate xlii. 

* Cf. Dabesst, MitKiaha de Mem, p. 54C. 

' The person in charge of this department is shown in 
L,D. ii. 60. His titles throw an interesting; light on the 
profession of the ancient artist. See Sheikh tiuid, p. 18, 
note 3. 

* Cf. Tomb of Ty, Baedeker, p. 137 (189S Edition). 

the house of the embalmers," and in the other, 
" beating (?) with sent on the coffer of the .^eHem 
sceptre . . . ." The workmen are carpenters 
of tlie Royal Residence (or of the interior of 
the house?), and of the tomb- estate respectively. 
Behind them is a comrade who is fashioning 
the sceptre above mentioned. In the tomb of 
Zau it is said to be of electrum. The two next 
workmen — one of them a "head carpenter" — 
are engaged on a shrine mounted on runners, 
which is destined to hold a statue or other 
article of burial furniture, and be dragged in 
the funeral procession. The carpentei-s have 
slung their adzes over their shoulders, and may 
be polishing the shrine by hand, but the mean- 
ing of the explanatory note is not clear, " Pro- 
viding a .... of vierhet oil (?).'* Further to 
the left a sculptor gives the final touch with 
mallet and chisel to the seated statue of a man. 
" A sculptor chiselling on a statue." His 
reward, apparently, is awaiting him ; for a 
servant who is squatting behind and holding 
a bird carefully, says reflectively, " This duck 
is very fat." Additional scenes from the sculp- 
tor's workshop are seen below. The " sculptor 
Sena " is chiselling a standing statue, which 
from the hair and pose must be female, despite 
the colour (red but not flesh- colour). In these 
tombs an orange approaching red is sometimes 
used for the flesh-tint of women (r. Frontispiece), 
Next we see "a sculptor working on a lion." 
The animal both by mane and outline seems to 
be a male, and not the presentment of Mati, but 
a lion-headed god may have been associated with 
her in worship, or the animal may have been 
sacred to her. A second standing statue, that 
of a man in close-fitting tunic, appears to be 
receiving its decoration of paint. "Adorning (?) 
the face of the statue." Another scribe or 
painter approaches. Next in order is " a 
carpenter working on a sedan chair," and behind 
him "a carpenter working on a staff (?)." The 
last group shows two " workmen polishing a 

c 2 


Registeh 3. — WouKERs IN Precious Stones 
AND Metals. 
This subject is scarcely eepavablc from the 
scenes already described. Here, however, the 
raw materials are so valuable that they are 
weighed out to the workmen. The balance 
has a cross-beam suspended from the top of the 
stand, with aboard fixed to it at right angles 
against which a plummet is hung, so that the 
parallelism of the line to this vertical board may 
determine the truth of the balance. From each 
end of the beam a cord hangs terminating with 
a hook, from which bags of material may 
easily be suspended. Two men superintend the 
weighing. Over one is written " Weighing {lit. 
'carrying') metal"; over the other "Seeing 

An interesting group follows, which depicts 
two men " boring carnelian." The tools and 
the blocks of carnelian are doubtless very much 
magnified for the sake of clearness. The latter 
may only be carnelian beads of the usual size 
which are here being pierced, whether by a 
turning motion, aa we should expect, or by 
"jumping" blows, as the action rather suggests. 
Fi'om the yellow colour of the tool, with blade 
and handle, it would seem to be of wood, and 
such an instrument might perhaps be employed 
if furnished with a hard point or used with 
emery powder. The meaning " gravers " may 
be hazarded for the signs above. The little 
beads or plaques when successfully pierced are 
perhaps passed on to their comrades to be 
shaped and polished, for we see another pair of 
" gravei-s " (?) " polishing carnelian " by rubbing 
it on a block. Another process of metal- 
working is seen behind, where two artizans are 
" beating electrum," The mass is between 
their hands on a block.' The man on the right 

' Althoagli I could not detect anything in their npi-aieed 
hands, the round stones n-hich seem to fanve been the only 
hanimei-fl the Egyptians ever possessed, mnat nocesaarily 
bi) supplied, aa in the corresponding scene in the tomb of 

remarks to his comrade, " Do it on the anvil (?) ; " 

to which the reply is made, " It will turn out 
well." The more familiar scene of the melting 
of the metal follows. Here are six men gathered 
round in a circle, a fire being in the midst.* Each 
is provided with a hollow reed, the end of which 
is furnished with a lump of clay to prevent igni- 
tion. The six blow-pipes being inserted in the 
flame raise it to a sufficiently intense heat to 
melt the contents of the crucible (which is not 
represented here). The note above describes 
the scene as "the melting of metal." The 
following sentence, " Ye are about to see (some- 
thing) good," refers, no doubt, to the food and 
jars of beer (?), which an attendant is bringing 
to the thirsty smiths. 

Registehs 4 and 5. — SniPWitiGHTS and Scribes. 

On the left we see three men trimming the 
rough logs into shape with the axe. One is "a 
head carpenter." The foremost cries to his 
comrade behind "strike hard," to which 
admonition he replies, " I am doing what thy 
/ras desire." The ship for which the curved logs 
or planks are destined is on the stocks, Three 
carpenters with an overseer (?) are at work with 
mallet and chisel, " Lo, I am chiselling," cries 
one of them. A fourth, trimming down the end 
of the vessel, exclaims, "The axe(?) — it cuts 
home; I am about to see something good." A 
second vessel with higher prow and much better - 
lines is on the stocks to the left. Three 
" carpenters chiselling " are seen at work on it ; 
a foui-th uses the axe. Between the \'essels a 
gang of four men are transporting a heavy baulk 
of timber, roughly squared and trimmed from a 
tree trunk. The method is that of the modern 

3 The readiness with -which the ancient tLrtist resolved a 
compIcK perspective into simple elements, and trusted to 
the common sense of his spectators to make the proper 
change mentally, is nowhei'e better eiemplitied than in this 


skaiij-ilbi, or portei's, in Egypt. The piece of 
timber is slung from a pole carried on the men's 
shoulders, so that the weight is well distributed. 
The men steady the ropes with their hands to 
prevent any swaying of the load. Presumably 
the timber is intended for the keel of a ship, or 
perhaps for a runner on ivhich to drag heavy 
weights. In the next register the builders are 
at work upon tlie baulk. One seems to be trim- 
ming off the stumps of branches with an ase,' or, 
it may be, is fashioning the turned up end of a 
sledge runner (Plate x.), the others are cutting 
holes for tenons with the haftless copper chisel, 
which is driven by mallets of a shape familiar to 
our museums. The " keeper of the bag, Neba," is 
giving in liis report to the scribes while keeping an 
eye upon his men.^ The workers are designated 
" Workmen of the necropolis belonging to the 
tomb estate, who do the pleasure of the House." 
One of the workei-s remarks, " I am working 
excellently, ye (?) shall see something good." 
The scribes who deal with the accounts of the 
workshops sit on the right, facing the busy 
scene. Good manners, however, demand that 
one shall turn his head in recognition of his 
master's presence. Each is provided with pens 
and tablet, pallet and water-pot, cases or spare 
tablets, and a chest to hold all. " One who is in 
the heart of his master," " One who does the 
pleasure of his master and who is in the heart of 
Lis master," " One who does the command of his 
master," are the honourable, yet condescending, 
epithets applied to these scribes of the steward. 

Rboisteb 5. — Family of Aba, etc. 

The patriarchal dignity of the deceased is 
enhanced, as usual, by the presence of his family 

' Pfactica! consideration i would suggest that the second 
axe in his hands is a correction of the designer. The 
rounded top of the mallet may also be an error in the first 

^ Some one eeems to liavij added the remark, " I am 
coming," in explanation, perhaps, of the backward glance. 

as well as by the exhibition of his numerous 
retainers and serfs. His ivife and seven sons 
are here represented, the latter of whom share 
only four names between them ; in face, however, 
of the many examples of such a practice we may 
accept the record as true (see p. 12). A scene 
follows here so inappropriately that it must have 
been added merely to fill the vacant corner. It 
really belongs to the series on the W, side of the 
wall, and represents what was an important 
branch of farm economy, the keeping of fowl. 
Here two pens are stocked, the one with cranes, 
the other with geese, and grain is being thrown 
to them from a bag by an attendant. In the 
goose-pen apparently a shelving basin is pro- 
vided for the birds to swim in. The hollow is 
indicated by adding two sections of it to the 
combined plan and elevation of the pen.' 

East Wall. (Plate vii.) 

The scenes on this wall have but little interest, 
are roughly executed, and are, in addition, in a 
very bad state of preservation, Buttheinscriptions 
are of such value as to make their fragmentary 
condition a matter of deep regret. The motive 
of the designer here was essentially biographical, 
not, however, with the view of merely enume- 
rating the wealth of Aba and the royal favours he 
had received, but of making them the just 
ground for maintaining the service of the tomb 
on a scale commensurate with his rank and 
wealth, and with the bequests actually made for 
this purpose. In accordance with this aim the 
upper third of the wall is occupied by a bio- 
graphical inscription in six lines which extends 
over the whole breadth of the wall. It is unfor- 
tunate that it was executed in black hieroglyphs, 
for this pigment, besides being almost invisible on 
the dark background, seems peculiarly subject 
to decay. Previous visitors do not seem to have 

' So also in the Tomb of Kagemna, Saqqareh. 



remarked the existence of the inscription, and it 
was only at the third trial that I was able to 
obtain a copy which seemed worthy of publica- 
tion (Plate xxiii.).^ The inscription is divided 
into two in the middle. On the left-hand side is 
(1) "[May the king grant] as a grace and 
Osiris .... in aU hh places the perJchei^ 
oflferings belonging to the fla-prince Aba (?) 

. . . . (2) Royal Chancellor, Governor of 
the Residence, Sole Companion, Great Chief of 
the Thinite(?) nome. Aba. He says, * I [was] a 

child who put on the girdle (?) 

[the Majesty of] (3) my lord. King of Upper and 
Lower Egypt, Merenra .... [appointed 
me?] as jBa-prince(?), sole Companion, Great 
Chief of the Du-ef Nome ; the Majesty of my 
Lord, the King of Upper and Lower Egypt 
[Nefer-Ka-ra ?] made me Superintendent of the 
South.' The Superintendent of [the South] (4) 
in verity, Aba, says, * As to any person who shall 
enter this chamber . . (5) . I was an excel- 
lent soul and of good parts ; I knew every secret 
mystery (magic ?) of the palace, every . . . 
of (?) the necropolis .... I was (6) one 
beloved of his father .... [praised of] 
his mother, deserving before the king, deserving 
before my city-god through love, Aba.' " 

On the right-hand is (1) a prayer to Anubis, 
" • . . . [the West extends] (2) her two 
hands to him (as ?) one deserving before the 
great God, Lord of Heaven, Aba. He says, 
. . (3) . . two tomb chambers .... 
(4) of the greatness of my nobility ... in 
the Du-ef 'Some . . Moreover I gave [bread 
to the hungry], clothing (5) to the naked . . 

Moreover, I , with (?) 

(6) with yoke oxen, with serfs of the tomb estate 
I was one praised . . . ." 

Beneath the inscription is a file of female 
figures, each representing an estate of Aba, and 

1 Only a hand copy of the inscription was possible. The 
lacunae were measured roughly by eye. 

carrying a bale on her head in token of its pro- 
ductiveness. Only one or two of the estate 
names can be completely deciphered. The 
fourth seems to be simply named " Wine ;" the 
sixth, " Field of . . . ;" the eleventh, " The 
Throne." At the left end of the row Khua (?) 
offers a bird to his father. Below this pro- 
cession of estates is an interesting inscription 
in blue hieroglyphs. 

" For the -ffa-prince, Governor of the Resi- 
dence, Sole Companion, First after the King, 
the deserving Aba. I made these as estates, 
demesnes of eternity (for the tomb ?) as a priest 
by virtue of grace granted by the King (?). The 
Majesty of my Lord caused to be provided for 
me ... . aruras .... [he pro- 
vided ?] these with serfs of eternity, filled with 
oxen, mth goats, Avith asses ; pie did this for 
me] besides the property of my father. Lo, I was 
governor of a Residence attached to Per-mer (?), 
(in an estate) of 203 aruras. His Majesty, 
my lord, gave me [these things] in order to 
strengthen me." 

Below on the right the incidents of the stock- 
yard are exhibited, and at the bottom of the 
wall are scenes of ploughing and sowing. The 
triangle on the right represents presumably a 
heap of seed com. Two " scribes of the tomb 
estate " are watching the work, and are a 
reminder of the destination of its products. 
The cattle and cereals which are raised on the 
estate mentioned above are to furnish the main 
part of that banquet of the dead which is 
suggestively pictured above. Aba, who with 
his wife receives the homage of the properties 
of the tomb estate as its living master, also 
sits as the dead proprietor to enjoy the fruits 
of the property in mortmain. Behind the 
table are the various provisions stored under 
shelter (suggested by the papyrus column on 
the right). The large vase exhibits a design 
which it is interesting to trace back to its 
natural source. The artists were accustomed 
to represent the breccias and granites, of which 


their finest stone vessels were miide, by a 
very exaggerated coloui-ing. A common foi-m 
of such decoration consists of indiscriminate 
red aud green blotches, the red tending to 
become diamond-shaped, aud to be set in 
regular rows, the green to become oblong 
grains, and to be put round the red spots, 
one on each of the foui- sides (so in the third 
vase fi-om the top, Plate xvii.). When the 
green spots, thus regularly arranged, touched 
one another, they formed a pattern like that 
on the vase in Plate xix., and when the 
diamonds were also made to meet, point to 
point, the more complicated pattern on Plate 
vii. resulted, in which the original idea is 
completely obscured.' 

The Shhine. 

Hero the essential representations are 
gathered, those which in a tomb of the simplest 
type would be the only symbolism employed, 
if the term can be used of representations 
that were expected to be thaumaturgic. Of 
these, the false door, by which the spirit of the 
dead might enter and depart from the burial 
vault where the body lay, is of first import- 
ance, and it is rather surprising that nothing 
in the shape of an altar for offerings is pro- 
vided in front of it. The list of offerings, and 
the depiction of the banquet of the dead, the 
presentation of gifts for it, and the performance 
of the religious ceremonial necessary for their 
appropriation by the dead, as well as the titles 
and name by which his identity is assured, are 
the subjects which obviously were of vital 
concern, and so find a place here. 

West Wall. (Plate xvii.) A large part 
of the wall is occupied by the list of offerings, 

' The black in the pattern representu green; the diamonds 
Kre red tuid Ihe g^nud drab. The lip oE the vtts6 is 
cheqaeK'd in black aod white. 

spaced fur 100 entries. As the inscriptions, of 
the usual type, were very far from being com- 
plete, they were not copied. The false door 
on this wall is carved in the rock, the recess 
left round the framing being coloured to re- 
present granite. The greater part has been 
destroyed ; what remains shows the usual 
prayers on Aba's behalf. To the right of this 
door sits Aba. His titles are inscribed over- 
head, eight vases of unguents are ranged 
behind, and beside his chair are articles of 
personal use. These comprise a coffer, two 
throw-sticks (?), two batons (P), and three 
mirrors with lotus-flower handles, one of them 
being in the hands of a dwarfed attendant. 
The offerings piled above the door are being 
consecrated by an embalmer and a Ka- 
servant of the tomb, Zau, who are purifying 
the table of offerings, and by the lector, Aba, 
whose office is " the offering of incense and 
the reading of the consecrations," To the 
left of the door are seen the children of Aba, 
who make meat and drink offerings. They 
here include his four daughters, Tekhyt, 
Merab, Henut, and Serezyt, and his sons Khua 
and Aba, the latter followed by a lector of the 
same name. Zau is absent, unless the hen ha 
zet above is he. 

NoitTH Wall. (Plate xviii.) A painted 
false door is the chief decoration of the ivall. 
It contains the prayers to Osiris and Anubis 
in the simplest form. The expression, " the 
//(t-prince in verity through love before 
Anhert," is a welcome variation from the 
usual formula : the mention of the deity of 
This was to be expected from the ruler of that 
nome. On the left of the door are offerings 
in four tiers. On the right Aba and Heneraa 
stand with Serezyt and another daughter, and 
receive gifts from their sons Zau and Khua 
and Aba's brother (?) Zau, It will be re- 
membered that the opening into the long 
passage which slopes down to the burial vault 
is immediately beneath this scene. The line 


of titles given at the top of this plate is 
written iu on the rebate over the entrance to 
the shrine. 

East Wall. (Plate six.) The list of offer- 
ings (ninety-nine entries) again occupies a 
conspicuous place, llie representation is very 
similar to that on the opposite wall, hut the 
false door is replaced by a banqueting tahle 
and a lavish pile of offerings, in which a mag- 
nificent bowl again appeal's (cf. Plate vii.). 
Aba's pet here is a female monkey, which has 
been provided with a basket full of fruit. She 
has been dressed with bracelets, anklets, and 
collar like a woman. The blue (to represent 
bluish-gray?) on head and body marks the 
colour of the animal's hair, and its separation 
from the red of the face, hands, and feet. The 
gifts which the servants bring in the two upper 
registers are described as " (the tribute) of his 
tomb estate for the Ka of Aba." One of the 
figures represents " the chief scribe and super- 
intendent of A'd-servants, who does the pleasure 
of his master, Rensi son of Aba." The lus- 
tration and the reading of magic texts by the 
lector Aha goes on as before, accompanied here 
by acts of adoration or prayer from two other 
celebrants, and the mysterious ceremony in 
which a priest walks away trailing a staff (?) 
on the ground. The sons, Zau and Khua, and 
the second Zau (?) offer gifts. 

Tomb of ^ ■■:=:' Hbtepneb. 
No. 2. Plitbs XXI. AND XXIII. 

The tomb was hewn in a low ledge of rock 
which is now worn away. The chamber is 
destroyed to the foundations, e.\cept at the back 
where the N. wall is preserved and a little of 
the roof. In the E. wall is a small false door. 
On the N. is a shrine-recess, the floor of which 
is occupied by a shallow pit, from which a 
narrow passage to the N. leads to a small vault. 

The N. wall of the shrine is occupied by a 

painted tablet framed within a border. Ou the 
riglit hand side are jars and food-offerings : on 
the left Hetepneb sits before a banqueting table, 
over which is written a prayer for thousands of 
various viands, " for the K<i of Hetepneb." 
Above his head is the following inscription in 
gi-eeu hieroglyphs: — 

" May the King grant as a grace and Anubis 
on his hill (grant) his fail- burial in a chamber 
(of the necropolis), as (to) one deserving before 
Osiris in all his seats, the Companion, First after 
the King, possessing (?)' thousands of things of 
his own, with (or, 'superintendent of) herds 
of goats, one deserving before .... who does 
the pleasure of his lord, deserving before Mati, 
through love, Hetepneb." 

On the E. side of the recess the figures of 
Hetepneb and his wife are visible, the latter 
with hands upraised. Her name may be 

Tomb < 

No. 14. 

(?) UlIA. 

Plates XXI. am. XXIII. 

The exterior is finished off with smoothed 
and a long lintel band. The walls of the 
interior are well squared. Three galleries for 
burial are hewn in the E. wall about two feet 
above the level of the floor, and two in the N. 
ivall. A gallery below floor level also runs to 
the W. under Tomb 15. The pit is only a few 
feet deep, and merely enlarges slightly below. 

The memorial is on a small plaster tablet iu 
the middle of the W. wall. On the left a 
female (?) figure sits facing a banqueting table 
piled with viands. The inscription above seems 
to refer to a //'i-prince and Governor of the 
Residence, but this is very doubtful. No name 
is legible. On the right a larger male figure 
stands facing the table and holding a staff in his 
left hand. There is a prayer above for perklieru 
gifts " for the sole companion Uba (?)," 

' Mr. P. Newberry reiids ^ ,=,. 



No. 16. 


Plates XXI and XXIII. 

The exterior is fashioned like that of tomb 
No. 14. The chamber within is hewn with 
some care, but the partition wall on the E. has 
given ivay. The three shafts are full of debris. 

The memorial is on a small plaster tablet on 
the N. wall, and is framed in a border of rect- 
angles. On tiie right a lady sita before a 
banquet tabic, on which viands and vases are 
arranged. Overhead is the inscription in blue 
hieroglyphs: "The sole Royal Ornament, deserv- 
ing before Mati, Tekhyt." 

Tomb of [I -^^ J I "^^ Senbsen. 

Ho. 28. ]'r.ATB XXIII.' 

This tomb was hewn in the secondary ledge 
of rock, and in consequence the E, chamber is 
entirely unroofed and the front part of it 
destroyed. The large chamber to the right, 
which is probably part of the same tomb, retains 
its roof, but is uniuscribed. The floor is not 

Only a few fragments of the representations, 
which seem to have covered the N. wall of tlie 
ruined chamber, can be made out, and even those 
obscurely. The lower part of a large male 
6gure is seen on the right with the end of a 
vertical column of hieixiglyphs, reading, " deserv- 
ing before Anubis, Senbsen." On the other side 
of an immense jar is a female figure (his wife ? ), 
"onedeservingbeforeMatijMistressof AakemtCi'), 
Senuyt," In front of her again is a banquet 
table (green stand, red top, green and red reeds 
alternately), beside which is written the prayer 
for food and clothing. Above it is a female figure 
to which the name Senuyt is attached, and who is 

' By aa oversight this tomb was not meoeared : the plan 
;i Plate I. is from ineinory only. 

I therefore probably a daughter. Beyond the 
tabic is another female figure named Mererut, 
who holds a lotus flower in her hand. A column 
of hieroglyphs in front again gives the name 
Aakemt as the seat of worship of Mati, a reading 
which has a clear confirmation in a tomb of the 
northei-n group (Vol. ii. Plate xxi.). 

TdMB fjf ^ = Merut. 

No. 33. Pnates XXII. aso XXIIl. 

The space round the doorway is smoothed, 
but the lintel (square) is within the entrance. 
The tomb (wrongly numbered 34 in Plate xxii.) 
is now of very considerable size, but the spacious 
inner chamber may be a later construction, as 
it is separated from the aute-room by pilasters 
and an architrave. The large room has a yhrine- 
recess in the back wall, and in the uneven floor 
are thirteen shafts, all now full, or nearly so. 
In the N.E. corner is an unquarried mass. The 
ante-room also has a shaft, empty for seven 
feet, in front of a false door, a part of the in- 
scriptions of which has been destroyed by the 
cutting of a niche. On the E. wall are three 
small niches, arched and plastered. The ceiling 
is lowered by a few inches halfway back and the 
W. wall also shows signs of an alteration of plan 
at this point. 

The inscription is on the false door in the S. 
wall. The lintel contains the prayer for all 
varieties of food and clothing in thousands, and 
the designation " one deserving before Mati, 
mistress of Aakemt (?), one who does that which 
is commended, Merut." On the lintel Merut is 
seen with her hands upraised in blessing (?) 
before the table of off'erings. A prayer to Osiris 
is on the other side. On the left jamb is a 

I prayer to Anubis ; on the right is the more 
unusual prayer to the king alone. Merut is 

j described as " beloved of her father and her 

I mother;" the drum and the tablet seem to have 

I recorded her surname. 


Tomb of I ^ ^ Nefer-tef-wa {?). 
No. 41. Plates XXI. and XXIII. 

This, with Tomb -iO, lies high up, near the 
summit of the hill. The excavation of the low 
slope which was necessary in order to obtain a 
facade has formed a large court, shared by the 
two tombs. The fa(,'ade of each is vertical 
and plain. The floor within is not visible. 
The subsidiary chaniljers open out of the small 
room, that to the N. being i-eached by a low 
passage of some length. Above the entrance 
to this is a plastered tablet on which a list of 
ofterings is written in faded black ink. Below 
it is a figure in a long robe, holding a staff and 
the khcrp sceptre, accompanied by illegible 
green hieroglyphs. A pit in the S.E. comer 
leads into a lower room, half passage, half 
chamber, which extends eastward, nan-owing 
and descending by two steps before becoming 
blocked by rubbish. 

The inscription is on a small plastered tablet 
on the E. wall. A male figure, clothed in a 
simple tunic, is seated on a chair on the left ; a 
column in front gives his name and titles as 
" the Sole Companion, the deserving Nefer-tep- 
wa (?)." A prayer to the king alone on his 
behalf runs overhead. In front of him is a 
standing female figure, " the royal noblewoman 
Sekhatusen (?)." 

Tomb OF f ®% Neper-nef-khetu (:■'). 

No. 42, Pistes XXI. tso XXIII. 

The facade is merely smoothed and is vertical. 
The interior is well laid out, but the surface of 
the widU is rough. There is an arched niche in 
the N. wall. The three shafts are nearly full of 
rubbish ; that in the S.W, corner expands to 
the W. a little below floor level. On the W. 
wall a space, three feet by five, is slightly 
recessed, smoothed, thinly plastered and inscribed 

with a list of olferings. Beneath this the 
deceased is seen seated, facing to the right, and 
before him is another figure in a long garment. 
The inscription over them is illegible. 

A tablet on the E. wall, similar but smaller, is 
inscribed in red and green inks. Here the 
deceased sits on the right, facing a table of offer- 
ings. Opposite him on the other side is a 
standing figure with klierj) sceptre and staff. 
The prayer above reads, " May the king gi-ant 
as a grace the jierhherii offerings which belong 
to Nefer-nef-klietu, beloved of his father and 
mother, praised of his brother, deserving before 
the great god." 

The smaller tombs in this necropolis fall 
very far indeed behind those of the nomarchs, 
and suggest no advanced rank and no great 
amount of material prosperity ; yet we may be 
deceived. The " Sole Royal Ornament, Tekhyt," 
of Tomb 16, may well be identified with the 
daughter of Aba ; and if this tiny chamber, 
eight feet square, in which her Ka could not 
have stood upright if it shared the limitations of 
mortality, was the " eternal home " assigned to 
a princess while her brother was hewing out and 
decorating his spacious hall, and if the tiny 
tablet was considered her suflicient memorial, 
we must be prepared to grant that the other 
tombs and caves may have been the burial 
places of high officials. As it is, the inscribed 
tombs seem all to have belonged to Sole Com- 
panions at least, and it would not be surprising, 
therefore, if lletepncb spoke truth in describing 
himself as owner of "a thousand cattle (?) of 
his own," and if Tomb 14 belonged to the 
governor of a residence. Merut, who reached 
the distinction of a false door, can scarcely have 
been less than the prince's daughter of that 
name, and Senbsen can hardly be estimated at 
less than princely dignity. When this is so, it 
cannot be expected that the rank and file of 
Aba's subjects ever thought of a rock tomb for 
themselves, a deduction which may help towai-ds 
a solution of the puzzling problem as to what 



population is represented by the comparatively 
small cemeteries which are found in Egypt. 
Did the mode of burial of the general population 
involve the disappearance of their remains, or 
did this follow as the result of the scant courtesy 
they met with at the hands of succeeding 

generations ? Perhaps some day the data will 
be reached by which we shall be able to estimate 
the population of the district which interred its 
dead at this spot ; if so, the separate description 
of these uninteresting burial places will not have 
I been useless. 




In such a volume as this, the plates constitute 
the really valuable part. Through them, if 
they are only reliable and complete, an ancient 
document, the future value of which not the 
most foreseeing can estimate, is snatched from 
immediate danger of decay or destruction. But 
after sufficient care has been bestowed upon the 
copy and some attempt made to interpret it so 
far as present knowledge permits, it will still 
be expected by many that something should be 
done to place the facts thus chronicled in living 
connection with the time and circumstance. 
The learned indeed may wish that such attempts 
were left to the few who can claim competence, 
and these in turn would often relegate the task 
to the more convenient season when Egyptology 
shall have accumulated and indexed its data. 
But perhaps the impulse to make history, even, 
at times, by paths of hazard, is not unjustified. 
It serves to remind the worker that he is deal- 
ing, not with a dead body of fact, but with a 
record of life. His hypotheses may prove the 
rough means by which vitality is maintained in 
what seems lifeless ; until, quickened by a fit- 
ting environment, it asserts itself again as a 
piece of living history. 

We scarcely need the cry of bereavement 
which rises in the midst of the formal prayers 
and conventional phrases in the tomb of Zau, to 
remind us that these ancient nomarchs were men 
about whom a whole world of affection and 
dependence, love and hatred, gathered. There 
are indications also that they played a part in 
the stirring political events of their time, though 
they may not have had the good fortune to be 
gent, like Una or Herkhuef, on great expedi- 

tions for the king, which, whether peaceful or 
warlike, were full of adventure and romance, 
and success in which brought everlasting fame, 
as well as immediate reward to their leaders. 
There does exist, at least, a chapter of history 
in which we may attempt to include the lives 
of these princes. For they lived when the 
national life was in culmination, and has left us 
fuller records than at any other period of the 
Ancient Kingdom. The biographies of the two 
great officials named above in themselves 
contain a picture of the public life of the time, 
which serves as a background to throw into 
greater distinctness the careers of other office- 
bearers of the period. On the other hand, the 
picture of private life which has been put 
together from records of earlier date receives 
many vivacious touches and considerable ampli- 
fication from contemporary tombs, and not least 
from those of this necropolis where flat painting 
gave an opportunity for detail which sculpture 
had not afforded. Finally, something may be 
learnt of the modes in which men of this distant 
age thought, from the religious faith and the 
burial customs which the inscriptions disclose. 

We have in this necropolis the record of eight 
princes of the nome with the title of " Great 
Chief." Five of these were buried on the more 
northern site, and almost certainly were the 
predecessors — probably the immediate pre- 
decessors — of Aba and his descendants. The 
tombs of that group, however, are so wrecked, 
that it is very improbable that the names of all 
the princes buried there have been preserved. 
Probably one or two more tombs at least belong 
to men of that rank. This would take us half 


way back through the Vth Dynasty, There is 
much less likelihood of failure in the record of 
a prince buried in the southern tombs ; for the 
few large chambei-s which are now blank are 
intact, yet show no trace of former inscriptions. 
The tomb of Senbsen, however, may well have 
belonged to one of princely rank. 

Neglecting this, we have in the southern 
group three members of one family, who in 
succession received from the king the office of 
(rreat Chief of the Nome. They are Aba, his 
son Zau-Shmaa, and the latter's son Zau, who 
was buried in one tomb with his father. 
M. Maspero, who had only Professor Sayce's 
erroneous report before him, concluded that 
Zau-Shmaa was the elder and that his son Aba 
was to be identified with the owner of the 
neighbouring tomb.' 

The reverse is now seen to be the case. 
By both name and surname Zau-Shmaa is 
identified as the son of Aba. Additional proof 
of this order of descent is afforded by the bio- 
graphical inscription of Aba, which shows that 
he derived his early honours from Merenra. 
Had Zau-Shmaa been the earlier of the two, he 
must have fallen in the reign of Pepy I. and 
could not then have held the priesthood of the 
PjTamid of Pepy-Neferkara. 

This line of mlers, by abandoning the burial- 
place of previous princes, and hewing out in a 
new site tomb-chambers, which in size and 
quality of decoration put to shame all previous 
attainments in the nome, announces itself as 
a new family. This is also shown by the 
names, which are almost entirely fresh. But 
a much more astonishing feature is that these 
three princes are Great Chiefs, not only of the 
Du-ef Nome in which they are buried, but also 
of the Thinite (Vlllth) Nome, a district of im- 
portance in which both Abydos, the seat of the 

' Eecueil de Travaux, xii, p. 68, 

worship of Osiris, and This, the early capital of 
the kingdom, were situated. It is evident too, 
from the prominence which is repeatedly given 
to the latter nome in the lists of Aba's honours, 
that the prince Wiis much more proud of hia 
connection with the Thinite Nome than with* 
the Xllth Nome, in which notwithstanding he 
probably resided during his lifetime, and at any 
rate was ultimately buried. In the case of 
Zau-Shmaa this peculiar preference is less 
noticeable, and it is no longer shown by his son, 
who in his long inscription on plate xiii. only 
mentions the chieftainship of the Du-ef Nome. 
If therefore Aba, the head of the family, had 
hereditary rights in either nome, his connection 
would seem to have been with the Nome of 

Evidence in support of this view comes from 
that nome itself, as M. Maspero (loc. cit.) has 
pointed out ; and though it is considerably 
weakened by the change in order of succession, 
it is scarcely to be abandoned. It is of great 
importance, as it connects the princes of this 
nome closely with the royal family. The name 
Zau is of very rare occurrence.* When it is 
found, therefore, as the name of a member of 
an importimt family of the time, it is natural 
to identify the families if not the individuals ; 
for most Egyptian personal names in early times 
have a very narrow range. Mariette found at 
Abydos the stela of one Zau,'' who there informs 
us that he was the son of Khua and his wife 
Nebt, and the brother-in-law of Pepy-Meryra; 
his two sisters having been married to that 
monarch and borne hira the two sons who 

' From J^i I " * B*^-" The determinative is written 
upright, hot there Be«m to be exceptions to this prac- 
tice. (Vol. ii. plates vii. and ix.) For occarrences of the 
name see A. Z. 1900, p. 65, where a patui<]n in- bearer 
is named " Zau, the Bedouin," and Mjlbietie, Abgdoi, i. 
plate ii. 

> Giwh, U31. 


succeeded him, Merenra and Neferkara.' Zau- 
Shmaa cannot be identified with this namesake 
of his, since we have seen him to be the son of 
Aba. But wc can well believe that Aba was a 
son oF the Zau of Abydos, and that it was in 
loyalty to the family traditions that he named 
his eldest son Zau after his father, and bis 
second son Khua after his grandfather. If so, 
Zau of Abydos had in addition a son named like 
Iiimself, for a brother of that name is depicted 
in the tomb of Aba {Plates iii., xi.).' 

The house of Aba, then, seems to have sprung 
from Abydos,* The titles given to Khua on the 
stela of his son show him to have been an Erpa 
11a prince, and his son succeeded him in this 
hereditary rank, adding to it the highest 
honours. If, then, Aba was the son of this Zau, 
he would inherit the title " hereditary prince " 

' Both sisters are named MerTra-ankhnes, Imving, 
perhaps, been renamed on mtirriage. One became the 
mother of Merenra, and may have died before her sister 
married the king and gave liirth to Neferkara, who must 
have been conBiileriihly younger. This new interpretation of 
an important monnment is doe to Dr. Borcharut, who com- 
municated to me Uis belief that the two figures of the queen 
must represent two separate jiersons, in face of the claim 
which Zan makes to be " their hi^ther," and has also kindly 
permitted me to make use oE hia discovery. It is certainly 
the most sti-aightforward reading of the inscription, and 
wiUBt long ago have found acceptance, hnt for the natui-al 
bias against the pi-actice involrcd — a practice, however, 
which was common in Egypt, and of which these tomba give 
eWdence, perhaps for this very family. The inscription in 
the Wady Maghara {h. T>A\. 110), which confirms the birth 
of Neferkara from Sleryi-a-ankhnes, gives only a negative 
testimony by Ita silence regai-ding the birth of llereni-a ; 
for Neferkara was concerned only with his own descent. 

^ The alternative is possible, therefore, that this brother 
is to be identified with the Zan of the stela, making Aba 
another son of Khua and Nebt and a brother-in-law of 
I'epy I. But besides that this makes Aha rather early in date, 
he would sorely, bad tliis been the case, have announced liis 
near relationship to the Queens, as Zau of Abydos has done ; 
the latter also wonld have been giren his high titles in 
Aba's tomb. 

^ The names Shmaa, Ada, Beba, Pepyna, Popyankhnes, 
which occor in these tombs, seem all to be names of family 
connections at Abydos. The names of the daoglitcrs are 
mostly peculiar, iterhaps local. 

by birth in the VIITth Nome, and not by con- 
nection with the Xllth. But later it seems to 
have passed to a collateral branch of the family 
at Abydos, for we find it claimed (in Neferkara's 
reign ?) by another Khua (also married to one 
Nebt, yet not identifiable with the father of 
the Queen) and descending to his son Ada.* 
The rulership of the Dn-ef Nome may have come 
to Aba by right of marriage. One of the last 
rulers buried in the northern necropolis was a 
prince Rahenera, whose wife also bore the same 
name. His tomb preserves no memory of a 
daughter; yet, as Aba's ivifc was so named, 
there is much likelihood that she belonged to 
this house, and that it was through marriage 
with this heiress that Aba acquired the claim to 
have the rulership of the Dii-ef Nome assigned 
to him by the king. It is very unfortunate that 
the biographical notice in Aba's tomb is so badly 
preserved. It probably informed us in whose 
reign he " put on the girdle " {i.e. emerged from 
childhood), what his rank was before King 
Merenra (as it seems) made him //u-prince (?) 
Sole Companion and Great Chief of the Du-ef 
Nome, and what further dignities Neferkara 
conferred upon him. Teta does not seem to have 
made his poiver felt far from the capital, but 
Pepy I. was \vise or powerful enough to remedy 
this weakness, and his marriage into a family of 
Abydos not improbably had a political end in 
view.^ It is significant, at any rate, that it is 
followed in the next reign by the assignment of 
the nomarchy of This to princes who seem to have 

* Maribtte, Cat. d'Ahydoa, pp. 86-88. The name on the 
stela {Gizeli, 1578) is plainly N.k.b.t, as De Rouge per- 
ceived. The stela of Ada (Gizeh, 1575) shows, however, 
that this must be a sculptor's enwr. 

° It may have been both custom and policy that the King 
an Khig of Upper Egypt should marry an heiress of the 
South, and vice verad. Compare the titles I IT 

and '\^ P ? "^^^ IJe Ronot, Six Premiere* Dynasties, 
p. 133^^ 


been non-resident. In doing so Merenra was 
probably carrying out an earlier policy of his 
father. Who preceded Aba as Great Chief of 
the Thinite Nome is not known ; but as J'epy I. 
had married into the princely family, we may be 
sure that the office was in friendly hands. The 
trial of tlie Queen Amtes suggests treasonable 
cabals against which that king had to contend, 
and his selection of his proved servant Una to 
investigate the case, rather than the high 
officials to whom it should properly have fallen, 
speaks more for the precaution of the king than 
for the security of his position. His great 
military expeditions to the South would demand 
a base of operations and supply much nearer 
than Memphis, and by lending new importance 
to the South country, render it necessary that 
all ijrovincial rulere should fully recognise the 
power of the throne. In the case of the Vlllth 
Nome, Merenra, while complying with heredi- 
tary claims and even seeming to increase the 
power of the nomarch by doubling the sphere of 
his rule, may in reality have kept in his own 
hands the control of the most important 
province by virtually banishing its nomarch to 

the other district under his sway, the remote 
and less important Dti-ef Nome. It is quite 
conceivable however that the reason for the 
double nomarchy was one more Battering to* 
the loyalty of Aba. Whether because he was 
regarded as a friend or as a danger to the state, 
his marriage to the heiress of the Du-i-f Nome 
seems to have been permitted, and the rulerahip 
of that province conferred upon him by 
Merenra. Then, later, when the rulersiiip of 
the Vlllth Nome fell vacant, or when Aba's 
fidelity to the croivn and acquiescence in this 
arrangement had been well assured, Neferkara 
bestowed this dignity also upon him. It would 
be quite natural that the latter title, which was 
considered due by birth to the hereditary prince, 
should be more esteemed by him than the 
chieftainship which he acquired through his 
^vife. It is equally natural that his son, and 
still more his grandson, should acquiesce in their 
absence from Abydos and feel at home in the 
province in which they had so long been 

Whatever may have been the motive for 
Aba's removal to the Xllth Nome, there is no 


Khua X Nebt (Mar. Catalogue d'Abt/tloi, 523 ; 
I Abijdoa i. plate ii.) 

Rahehbu-Asa X Rahenem Zan (ib.) 

I {D. el a. ii. plaLe xvii.) 

Meryra-aukhnen \. X King Moryra y Meri/ra-imkliuci II 
I (Pepy 1.) I 

I I I I I 1 Ki.^ 

Asa? Qednea Qehna? Bahentvt. x ABA Zau 

Henema I (D. el G. i. plate T.) 

1^ \ \ " I \~~~\ i \ 

Seresyt ISertab Tekhyl Heaut Ada Zau Aba Zaii 

King Neferkara 

Khoa ZAO-SHMAA X Pepy-nnUnes 

I (B. el 6. ii. plate vi., 

Ada Bebar' Aba Pepy-aiMm 

Aba ZAU X Henlaes 

N.B. Broken Hues represent hypotlietical connections. 

Names iu aniall capital lett«rs arc tlioae of nomiirch.B of the Xlltli Noi 
Names in large capitab are those of noraarchB of both nomea. 
Names in italics are those of females. 


sign of rebellion, but, on the contrary, of close 
understanding between the throne and his family.^ 
He may have felt so united to the fortunes of 
his royal cousins as to have agreed to their 
policy; not less readily, we may believe, if, 
though his right of rule inthe Vlllth Nome was 
nominal, his right of revenue was allowed. This 
acquiescence by the family is exhibited in their 
acceptance of the tutelary goddess of the XII th 
Nome. Aba alone permits himself a solitary 
assertion of his loyalty to Anhert, the god of 
the home of his fathers, from whose jurisdiction 
he had passed, but whom he, nevertheless, 
desired to acknowledge. 

In endeavouring to gain some further light 
on the activities in which Aba engaged, it is 
natural to turn to the list of honours and offices 
which are mentioned with wearisome iteration 
in this, as in all large tombs. But there is much 
in these lists that calls for caution in their use. 
Besides that they often seem negligently drawn 
up, we scarcely yet have the means of gauging 
their real significance, of separating empty 
designations from important offices, giving to 
antiquated titles their real meaning and ranging 
the indicated honours in a true scale of worth. 
Some of the offices may have been passed 
through and left behind, though the conservative 
Egyptian mind clung to the mention of them ; 
others represented duties which belonged ejr 
officio to the higher office and were not 
separately granted. We may believe, for 
instance, that Aba had had charge at some time 
of the granaries, the game-preserves, the custom- 
houses of the district ; or, with more probability, 
that as Ua-Vr'mce or Great Chief of the nome 

1 Tlie stela of Zan, of Abjdos, seems to present the same 
Bitnation. For, thoagh the record that be made his grave 
at Abydos " for love of the Nome in which I was bom of 
the Royal Lady Nebt," might be the words of an esile, he is 
not afraid to boast of bis higli linease or of the favour 
which three kings in snccesaion had shown him, and npoo 
which he relied for exceptional bnrial honoora. 

he was the official head of these departments 
and responsible for them. As Chief Lector and 
Chief Priest, he had left behind, we must 
suppose, the grades of Lector and Secondary 
Priest; yet these also arc duly chronicled. His 
Chieftainship probably carried with it the 
religious office of Chief Lector, and such 
ecclesiastical duties as are suggested by the 
titles " Director of every divine office," " Scribe 
of the accounts of the god," as well as the 
mysterious priestly titles the form of which 
depended on the local cult. The priesthood of 
the king's pyramid may be taken to be a special 
mark of royal favour. The Chieftainship or 
Hereditary Princedom probably also carried 
with it by customary right the ancient judicial 
titles ^ CUD and 1 J ^- But the real judge- 
ship seems at this time to have been wisely 
separate from the executive power of the 
prince, for the high judicial office S3 "W ^f 
is one of the few that are not assigned to Aba 
or his sons, 

"Without fuller knowledge of provincial 
politics in Egypt, it is not easy to fix the exact 
significance of this office of the Great Chief 
or Nomarch, It has not yet been found 
for the nomes of Lower Egypt, and it has 
hitherto been considered a creation of the 
Vlth Dynasty ; but if the priority of the princes 
of the northern tombs holds good, the office must 
run far back into the Vth Dynasty. It repre- 
sents perhaps an attempt of the king to regulate 
and unify the government of the upper 
provinces, and to counterbalance the patriarchal 
power of the Ei-jm prince by this administrative 
office of the nomarch, resting on a central 
government and only amalgamated with heredi- 
tary claims by the free favour of the king. But 
it was more easy to introduce the title and office 
than to gain for it proper recognition from 
princes or people. Like all Orientals, the people 
preferred the capricious but personal rule of the 
prince of the land, whose rule was by birthright, 


to the blessings of organized officialdom, whose 
root was in the distant capital. The prince in 
his tomb boasted first and foremost, not of the 
nomarchy, but of his birthright ; and many an 
antiquated and empty dignity took precedence 
of it in his list of honours.' Not that he was 
disloyal to the king or the system ; but the title 
had no personal attachment. It was conferred 
on him, not bom with him, and as a less 
personal quality had less power to establish his 
identity in the tomb. 

The scenes on tomb walls rarely contain any- 
thing in the way of direct personal reminiscence. 
Yet the introduction of an unusual representa- 
tion, or the unusual elaboration of a familiar 
subject, may be the reflection of character and 
persona! achievement. Such exceptional treat- 
ment is found in the scene on plate viii., which 
represents Aba's strict and personal administra- 
tion of the estate, as also in the representation 
of the workshops of the residence (plates xiii. to 
xvi.). The Ou-eJ Nome was probably very 
much more rural, and less m touch with the 
capital, than the nome in which Abydos was 
situated. The small renown of any town in it 
in ancient days confirms this, and the great 
advance in tomb decoration nuule by the family 
of Aha appears to bear witness to more than an 
influx of wealth. Aba would thus bring with 
him from Abydos lessons of that which 
organization and training can do to make a large 
landed estate yield wealth to its owner, ivith the 
amenities and artistic luxury which wealth can 
procure. Hoivever unpleasantly Oriental the 
summary discipline used on the official under- 
lings on his estate may appear to us, it may 
have been extremely wholesome for peasants 
who had been accustomed to go their lax way. 
It would he true to human nature if these little 

' So at Sheikb Said in the tomb of Uan and freqaently 
here. This statement would have to be discoanted if it 
conid be shown that the last place on the list next to the 
personal name waa alsiO a place of honour. 

" foremen of gangs " were themselves the most 
oppressive taskmasters ; and even if the rule of 
Aba was far from benevolent it might yet be a 
beneficial exchange. This new sight of the 
palanquin of the nomarch swiftly carrying him 
here and there in the land was no doubt very 
distasteful ; but it was probably a great benefit 
to the province that the strong hand of Aba 
should be felt tliroughout its borders. 

We are justified in putting so favourable an 
interpretation on this scene because of the com- 
panion picture. This depiction of the local 
handicrafts is so full and betrays so exceptional 
an interest as to convince us of the capacity of 
the prince for his task, and suggests that hia 
settlement in this nome may have been an 
acknowledgment by the king of his powers of 
organization rather than of his ability to make 
mischief in Abydos. High attainment in handi- 
crafts, and the production of beautiful objects 
with tools adapted to the task, is perhaps the test 
of material civilization, and the promise of what is 
still higher : nor is the maxim any less applicable 
because in Egypt a large part of the output was 
destined to furnish the home, not of the living, 
but of the dead. This patronage of crafts seems 
to have been more than the capiice of a wealthy 
prince, who imported artificers from outside to 
keep him supplied with luxuries.' As the in- 
scription shows, the woi'kshops were highly 
organized ; the material was weighed out to 
each workman, and entered in the books of the 
department; and head men were kept to supply 
the craftsmen with new designs, or arrange their 
work for them. Too little is known of the 
organization, whether feudal or otherwise, under 
which the Egyptian craftsman turned out such 
finished work. The expression " workmen of 
the interior and exterior " may mean those who 
labour in the work-rooms of the residence, and 
those whose occupation takes them into the 

* The designer of the tomb of Zai 
havo been settled in the district. 


opeu air. But it msiy possibly mean those who 
work for the palace as distinguished from such 
as work for their own hand outside it. In this 
case the intei'est of the nomarch would be the 
more meritorious. The province probably 
afforded ample material for manufacture : 
alabaster for vases, wood for statues, furniture 
and boat-building, and perhaps metals also.' 
Not, indeed, that these resources had been 
hitherto altogether neglected : workers in metal 
are depicted also in a tomb of the northern 

It is impossible even to conjecture how long 
Aba ruled over the Dn-ef Nome. The curious 
indifference to the past which the Egyptians 
showed, and which was perhaps due to their 
strong interest in the future, prevented them 
from making any statement as to the age of the 
deceased at burial. The element of biography, 
too, entered so little into tomb records, that 
these princes rarely left any indication at what 
age they occupied the heritage of their fathers. 
Honour was still a concern of those who had 
passed from visible life, but not the accidents by 
which it had been attained. 

Even had the biographical inscription of Aba 
been preserved intact, it is hardly likely to have 
afforded additional evidence as to his character 
or benevolence, attested as it is by himself :ilone 
and couched in the current phrases. But the 
presence of an inscription of this kind does 
afford some guarantee that this prince acknow- 
ledged the ideals of character and of princely 
duty to which the best spirits of the nation had 
attained. Whatever else it may imply, the 
double nomarchy is a tribute to his personal 
ability, and possibly also to his zeal in adminis- 
tration ; which, if it fulfilled the ancient 
Egyptian estimate of good government, must 
have been actively paternal and solicitous for 
the weak. The other inscription on the east 

' DuMiCHiN, Oetcliichle d. alt. A'jyplens, pp. 171-3. 

wall points out the further favours granted by 
the king to Aba, not by way of honour and 
enrichment among the living, but in the matter 
of burial equipment and suitable provision for 
the service of the tomb when he should be laid 
in it. It bears additional evidence, if that were 
necessary, to the cordial relations between 
prince and king. The mention of his father's 
property is also interesting, corroborating the 
evidence of Aba's high birth. Unfortunately, 
the faded estate-names give us no clue to the 
locality in which the property was situated. 

The consideration of this inscription as 
evidence of the king's prerogative in connection 
with the burial of his subjects is reserved for the 
second volume, when we shall meet with a more 
explicit declaration of Zau on the same subject, 
The two tombs promise to give very valuable 
aid towards removing the mystery from the 
setcn d'j hetep formula and practice. 

The Nome. Apart from the record now 
afforded by these tombs, hardly anything is 
kno^vn of the history of the Xllth Nome in 
ancient times, and very little even at a later 
date. The lists have suffered mutilation at this 
point in some cases, but we leani from them 
that its capital vras named « '=' ^ .^ Net- 
ent-bek "the city of the Hawk," or "^ ^ 

Per-hor-nub" "the city of the golden Hawk." 
Besides the worship of Horus in this form, 
there was also, according to the lists, the cult of 
Mati, a form of Ilathor. Mati, as these tombs 
have shown, is the deity who was especially 
reverenced in the nome in the time of tjie 
Ancient Kingdom.^ In Roman times a Pretorian 
cohort of the Lusitani was quartered at the 
capital of the province, and a relic of this 
occupation was discovered by Mr. Harris in the 
village of Deir el Gebrdwi. It is a black stone 
inscribed with a dedication of the camp to its 

' For &a early mention of tlie deity Bee L. D. I 


deities, and it is uow built into the interior of 
the village church. There was another Roman 
camp at Isiu, which may also lie within the 
borders of the norae towards the south. 

The site of the capital has not been determined. 
The name of the most important village at 
present, Ehnub or Bauub, has an Egyptian 
sound, and if it be taken to represent a 
shortened form of Per (lior) nub, may indicate 
the ancient site. A branch of the river still 
passes close to it, so that the situation would 
be very suitable. It is indeed far from the 
necropolis ; but, as its present inhabitants still 
bury at this very spot, it is evidently regai-ded 
aa most suitable for the purpose, or as conse- 
crated by age-long custom. The power of this 
latter motive may remain unweakened even by 
the two enormous breaches in sympathy made 
by Isldmand Christianity: it is curious that the 
Copts still bury beneath the heights of the 
southern necropolis, the Mohammedans opposite 
the northern tombs. If Ehnub is not the site 
of the ancient capital, the latter must be looked 
for nearer the two places of burial, and perhaps 
at Deir el Gebr&wi itself. The Roman camp, 
judging by remains opposite the village, was 
situated here, and perhaps one of its important 
duties would be to watch the mouth of the 
Wady which enters the hills a little to the west 
of the northern necropolis, and is the only road 
northwards on the east bank. It emerges from 
the hills into the plain of Tell el Amarna, and is 
a route still used by drovers. The name of the 
Old Kingdom town, or perhaps only of the 
sanctuary of Mati, is gained from the tombs of ! 

Deir el Gebrawi, where the goddess is repeatedly 
referred to as its mistress. It is usually written 
merely by a vase of the des type, set within an 
oval enclosure fortified by four or six bastions. 
But on two or three occasions the name appears 
spelt out as U 'K ^z^* ^^ ^ © Aakemt, followed 
by the above determinative {Tomb of Senbsen, 
plate xxiii. and vol. ii., plate xxi.). It also 
appears in what seems to be a shortened form 
•^^= "Aket."' 

It is possible that in later times the worship 
of Mati, overshadowed by the worship of the 
Hawk, had become an unimportant cult, and that 
in consequence of this decline her sanctuary 
had disappeared, or so diminished as no longer 
to have an independent name. Perhaps 
even the male and female deities had been 
originally worshipped together in forms 
which represented a terrifying rather than a 
mild influence ; the one as the Victorious Hawk, 
the other as the Lioness. Or it may be that the 
male companion of Mati the lioness was Mahesa 
the desert lion, who was certainly worshipped 
in the district immediately to the south, 

' In a list of tlie places of burial of relics of the gods it is 
said that a ^gcr of the god Hapi was buried at Per-hor- 
nnb i» a jar f| QV This legend may be of very 
ancient date, and the sonrce of the determinative for tha 
sanctnary (BsiruscH, I>icL Gioy. p. 1359), Bnt the 
legend may also be derived from the determinative. A 
phonetic value for the latter may periiaps be found thiwagh 
the title 14 (p. 8), which has a tempting resemblance to tha 
name of the sanctoary, imd heads the liat of religions offices. 



The Tomb of Aba at Toebes/ 

The tomb of Aba in the Asaasif at Thebes is of 
a very different character from that of his name- 
sate at Deir el Gebnlwi. It consists of an 
extensive and ehiborate suite of underground 
chambers excavated in the rock and reached by 
an open stairway. This descends in a southerly 
direction to a small ante-chamber, the walls of 
whicli are adorned with sculptui-es. A doorway 
on the right leads hence into a largei" sculptured 
chamber, the roof of which was formerly 
supported by two square pillars, probably 
with Hathor-head capitals. It is on the south 
■wall of this room that the scenes are found 
which have been borrowed from Deir el Gebriiwi. 
From the north wall a door^vay lends into a 
third chamber, the walls of which are decorated 
as before.* The tomb is continued to the north, 
first by a hall supported on six columns and 
then, to the north and west, by a suite of 
smaller rooms which are undecorated, In the 
hall, also, only the columns are inscribed. 

The tomb, though magnificent in constrnction, 
cannot lay claim to great excellence in the 
execution of its sculpture. A part of the 
decoration, including the large figures of the 
deceased, is in high relief, and the work is here 

* Fur a plan and general treatment of tlie tomb the 
reader is referred to the publication of Father Scheil, 
" Toiiilieaiu Thehaim," pp. 62-t, itqq., to which the aathur is 
also indebted for snch information as was not to be gained 
from his own partial examination of the tomb. 

' Scheil, no donht on snfScient grounds, describes the 
ruom as an open court with covered galleiy. At present 
the roof is almost entirely gone, and the chamber half fall 
of mbbish. The fiint two room!) are clear, and can be 
entered without diffienlly. 

of considerable merit. I3ut the smaller scenes 
are in relief en crciu; and though in many parts 
a certain amount of care has been bestowed 
upon them, and detail introduced, they cannot 
claim to rank as works of art. All the hiero- 
glyph-i arc incised and culuured blue. 

Aba, whose name is spelt indifferently \ j.\ 

\ ^ %*' ^^^ \ S '^' 1' ^'^^ ^^ Erpa- 
ha prince, Hoyal Chancellor of Psammetichus I. 
(B.C. 66-1—610) and Chief Steward of the 
queen Netaqert. 

The south wall of the second chamber is 
occupied by two scenes. On the right hand 
Aba sits under a canopy and is entertained by 
various dancers, musicians, &c., who are ranged 
in five registers in front of him. On the left 
hand Aba stands, surveying the artificers of the 
tomb-estate, who are engaged in making funeral 
furniture of all kinds. These also are arranged 
in five registers ; a sixth, which extends from 
end to end of the wall under both scenes, is 
occupied by men and women representing the 
estates of Aba, who bring tribute to their 

A comparison of the left Inilf of the wall 
(Plates xxiv. and xxv.) with plates xiii. to xvi. 
of the present work will at once show the reason 
for its reproduction here.' The coincidence 
alike of the groups and the inscriptions is so 

^ Many of the scenes on tile wall were copied hj Cham- 
pollion and Resell ini when tlie scnlptares were more com- 
plet«. These older copies are therefore very valuable. 
They are reprodnced in Rosellini's Monumnii Civili and 
Chanipollion'a Manmuents ile I'Sgi/ple et de In NtU/ie. 
Brugach preserves a few of the short It^enda accompanying 
the scenes in his Sreneil de Monnment» ii. pi. Ixviii. 
c, d, e. 


considerable that it can only be accounted for by 
direct borrowing from the tomb of Aba at Deir el 
Gebrfiwi. A. copy, in the strict sense, it cannot 
be called, for many changes in detail have been 
made. The scenes have been re-distributed, 
one or t\vo gi'oups have been omitted, figures 
and objects have been given slightly difl'erent 
forms or positions, and some of the inscriptions 
have been omitted or abbreviated. Some new 
material has also been appended to the original 
scenes, largely with the object of showing the 
manufacture of such articles of burial furniture 
as were not in use in Old Kingdom days, or 
were not depicted at Deir el Gcbr^wi, These 
additional scenes occupy the whole of the top- 
most register and the end of the second and 
third. This series may also have been taken 
from another tomb, for the operation of melting 
metal is introduced a second time. Besides the 
changes mentioned there is a great alteration in 
appearance due to the employment of sculpture 
instead of mural painting. It may be said, 
therefore, that a copy of the subject at Deir el 
GebrS,wi lay before the sculptor of this tomb, 
but that while he endeavoured to make use of 
all the figures and groups in it, he contented 
himself ivith copying the action and attitude of 
each, and did not hesitate to substitute familiar 
forms for those which were no longer known, as 
in the case of vases, cheats, scales, &c. Where 
no good reason for alteration existed, the exact 
attitude was almost invariably retained by 

The figure of Aba, which stands at the head 
of the scene, is incised like the rest, the whole 
ground having been first laid out in squares for 
the guidance of the designer. Aba carries staff 
and sceptre, and wears the simple tunic, the 
lector's scarf, a collar and pendant amulet. The 
descriptive text overhead is taken from the 
earlier tomb, with small differences of wording 
and spelling, the titles of Aba being replaced by 
thnt of his later namesake, who describes him- 
self simply as " Chief Steward of the Queen." 

The scenes in the First Register are not 
copied from Deir el Gebrfiwi ; indeed some 
of them could not be found in any Old 
Kingdom model. First are seen the metal 
■workers, who raise their furnaces to a high 
temperature by the use of blowpipes.' Behind 
them are three men who sit in a circle and beat 
out metal (on an anvil?) with handleless 
hammers, which they grasp by the middle. 
The men above them seem to be receiving and 
keeping ward over the pieces of metal, which, 
wlien delivered to them, are spread out on a 
table (or placed in a chest ?). The metal 
appears to be in ingots and rings ; ite yellow 
colour seems to indicate that it is gold, or 
perhaps electrnm. Next in order are two men 
who carry what, to judge by shape and colour, 
may be a piece of matting for use as a screen. 
An ovei'seer, comfortably crouched on a raised 
platform, superintends the work. The occupa- 
tion of the two workmen behind is not easy to 
determine. It may be that the mass which is 
being mixed in the dish is the paste which was 
used in the manufacture of shabti figures and 
other small objects and afterwards glazed.* His 
companion is moulding or fitting together an 
elaborate coloured ornameut, the chief part of 
which is in the form of a lily with water drops 
hanging from it — a type only known at a late 
date. A box to hold their productions, and a 
tool or partly fiuished object lie near the work- 
men. Next are seen the four canopic jara, 
inscribed for Aba, and naming the four deities 
i\'ho preside over their contents : they appear 
to be the work of the maker of shabti figures, 
" the chief designer, attached to the room (?) 
of the Queen, Pedihorsamtaui." ' The little 
vase which is in the hands of the artificer 

' Ro3. M. a lii. fig. 3. 

' Op is it paint whicL is beiug groand on a slab ? 
3 itos. M. C. xlv. 5. Neither the ahabtis nor tbt 
jars can have been copied from an early tomb. 




behind may be of the same material. His 
fellow workman seems to be making a stand or 
coffer for the vase, the height of which he is 
noticing ; he is at the same time measuring off 
lengths on a strip of wood, which he holds on his 
knees. His method of measurement is interest- 
ing, his imit being the forearm from the wrist 
to the elbow. Having already measured off 
this length with one arm, he is about to do the 
same with the other ; or else he is computing the 
remainder by means of the span between thumb 
and finger, thus using the natural divisions of 
length, on which primitive metrology is based. 
It is possible, however, that this interpretation 
of the action is altogether at fault. The rest of 
the register is occupied by leather workers, wlio 
are making the sandals with which the dead was 
furnished. The man on the right is pulling a 
strip of hide to and fro over a rounded saddle 
set on legs. A bearded comrade is holding out 
a pair of finished sandals for inspection. The 
inscriptions perhaps read, " leather of fox-skin," 
" leather of goat-skin," but the second is 
blundered. Two others are cutting out leather 
by means of broad-headed and handled knives 
of a peculiar shape, which cut by a rocking 
rather than a drawing action. One is cutting 
off narrow strips on a board ; the other seems 
to be shaping something out of a skin, which he 
has spread out upon the ground. The inscrip- 
tion reads " cutting up a leopard-skin." ^ 

In the Second Register the stone workers 
and carpenters are represented, who occupy the 
topmost register at Deir el GebrAwi (Plates xiii., 
xiv.). The second group of carpenters is 
omitted, as well as the greater part of the 
legend over the preceding group.^ Considerable 
changes have been made in the shapes of the 
vases, but the forms have been selected to cor- 

^ Rob. M, C. Ixiv. fig. 4. Champ. Mon, clxxxii. 

- The group is complete with the inscription in Champ. 
Mon, clxxxi. 1, and the naos scene is in fig. 4 of the same 

respond as closely as possible to the obsolete 
types of the Old Kingdom. The chest also has 
been given a more modem appearance. The 
fragment of inscription over the vases confirms 
the reading already adopted for the earlier text 
(p. 19). The two groups of the sculptor at 
work on the sitting statue, and of his companion 
with the bird, are almost entirely destroyed. 
The rest of the register contains matter new to 
the Vlth Dynasty tomb. As the contents of 
the first naos were not shown, another is de- 
picted, in which the standing statue of the 
deceased is being set. Further on are two 
wheelwrights fitting together one of the 
wheels of a chariot.^ The axle-tree with the 
floor or front of the car already attached to 
it lies behind them with two bent hoops of 
wood to be used in the framework. Another 
workman with his adze trims do^Ti a slender 
pole against a large wooden block; it is, 
no doubt, to be used in the bent woodwork 
of the frame. Two others hold similar, but 
thicker poles, one end of which they have in- 
serted between two upright posts fixed in the 
ground, so that they can bend or straighten the 
poles at will. The two wheels shown in the 
background, as well as the action represented, 
indicate that the two lengths of wood are being 
bent round to form the rim of the wheel. By 
bending the two in opposite directions at the 
same time, in the way shoAvn here, the strain 
on the upright posts is reduced to a minimum.* 
The Third Register contains the scenes of 
the second register of the wall at Deir el Ge- 
brawi (Plates xiii., xiv.).*^ The operation of 
stringing beadwork and cleaning the collars 
does not seem to have been fully considered, 
or has been carelessly rendered ; for the articles 
in the hands of the men, and set out on the 

8 Ros. Mon. Civ, xliv. 4. Champ. Mon. cxcii. 2. The 
(vheel had seven spokes. 
* Ros. Mon, Civ. xliv. 4. Champ. Mon. cxcii. 1. 
' The stand with vases in Champ. Mon. clxxxi fig. 2. 


tables behind them, are so i-oughly outlined as 
to be deprived of all meaning. The tables also 
on which the collars were being handled have 
been transformed into coffers.' Although the 
wrecked state of the wall forbids certainty, all 
the groups in the original seem to have been 
faithfully reproduced here ; for the most part 
ivith the same superscriptions. The standing 
statue which is being chiselled by the sculptor 
seems to be that of a man.' Even the couchant 
lion, probably significant only at Deir el Ge- 
brawi, is copied in this Theban tomb.^ The 
broken inscription over the second statue has 
apparently been replaced by the name of a 
contemporary craftsman, but this also is almost 

Beyond the group of table-polishers were 
several scenes added from other sources, or at the 
artist's fancy. The first of these is still connected 
with the preceding scene, for it shows a carpen- 
ter fashioning the leg of a table with the adze on 
a wooden block.* The inscription over it, " A 
carpenter working vnth. the adze," is the repeti- 
tion of one preceding it ; further on, over a lost 
scene, the later determinative is added to the 
verb. Apparently, tlierefore, the intention was 
to copy the original legend, without change. 

The scenes of tlie Fodrtei REGlSTEit, repre- 
senting shipwrights and workers in precious 
materials, are taken from the third and fourth 
registers of the wall at Deir el Gebriiwi (Plates 
xvi., xiii., xiv.). The two last groups of the 
fourth register there are placed fii'st here, but 
in reverse order. On these there evidently 

' Rob. ifon. Civ. U, figu, I, 2. 

-' Ros. ST. C. slvi. 9. CLamp. Mon. clxii. 1. The 

Bttttue is backed against a pilaster. BoBellini makes it 
represent a woman, Champollion a man. 

» Rob. M. C. xlvii. 1. Champ. Jlfoii. dxxi. 3. 

♦ Rob. M. C. xlvi. 8, Champ. Mon. clxxs, 2, give the 
gronp complete; the Boribe standing behind {as io PI. 
zIt.) id Champ. Mon. clxxxiii. 2 ; after thid mnat bare come 
the © ^ group of Champ. Mon. clisxiii. 1. 

' Champ. Mon. cixxx. 4. 

followed the whole of the third register of the 
original ; but the first three groups after the 
weighing scene are entirely destroyed. The 
attitudes of the men who carry the great baulk 
of timber have been slightly altered, and the 
second labourer has been given a specially 
elaborate toilette." The form of the balance 
had evidently somewhat altered in the long 
lapse of time, and the sculptor has represented 
the apphance as he knew it. The post is 
here surmounted by a human head and the 
substances are weighed in scales, instead of in 
baskets attached to hooks. The pointer is here 
destroyed. The weight shown in the scales is 
in the form of an ibex.' In the superscription 
over the melters of metal at the end of the 
row,® a sign which is not clear in the original 
at Deir el Gebruwi has been read, rightly or 
wrongly, by the Theban copyist as V ; further 
on a % has been left out by him. 

The Fifth Reqisteb is occupied by scribes 
and shipbuilders, comprising probably the whole 
of the fifth and what remained of the fourth 
registers of the original (Plates xv., xvi.). The 
greater part of it is now destroyed. The in- 
scriptions over the scribes contain several errors, 
which seem to indicate that the paintings at 
Deir el Gebrawi had even at that time sus- 
ttiined many of the present injuries. The first le- 
gend is probably a mistaken copy of ni ^^^ *^^^ 
-^ Y ^_ 1 [j , but it is not apparent why a 
meaningless sign has been prefixed to the 
second superscription. In the third instance 
T has been mistaken for 0. The inscrip- 
tion over the last figure in the row "(a man who 

^ The Bner details of the tncic have had to be omitted 
in (he Plate. The boat-baildiog is given in Rob. Mon. C'ip. 
xliv. 2, Champ. Mon. cUxxiii. 3; the carrying of the 
timber in Ros. Mon. Uiv. ulrii. 5. 

^ Nearly complete in Rob. Mon. Civ. li. 3. 

» Ar in PI. siv. 

' Cf. PI. ivi. top right-hand corner. 

is working fit the end of the boat) baa been 
abbreviated and altered, but the new form has 
for us no more meaning than the old, and may 
merely be the result of a careless reading 
of the faded signs. There is abundant reason 
to believe that the artist did not hesitate to set 
down what was incomprehensible to him. 

Hunting Scene (Plate xxv.). On the east 
wall of the third chamber there is a small scene 
which also seems to have had its origin in 
the tomb at Deir el Gebruwi. It is a hunting 
scene, and its prototype will be found in the 
top register on Plate si. The Theban artist 
has used considerable freedom in his reproduc- 
tion of the picture, and it has besides suffered 
many injuries; but there remains sufficient 
similarity to make the comparison profitable, 
having in view the sadly defaced condition of 
the original. The omissions from the picture 
suggest anew that at the time of the XXVIth 
Dynasty the defacement liad already progressed 
so far that it was impossible to obtaiu a com- 
plete copy, and that vacant spaces ivere left to 
be filled at the caprice of the designer. No 
inscriptions have been inserted by him. The 
animals here represented are two (?) maned 
lions, each (?) of which is striking down a 
gazelle, a leopard, two hunting dogs, a pair of 
oryxes struck by the airows of tlie hunter, a 
hedgehog of unnatural proportions and a gazelle. 
Two hunters, armed with bows and aiTows, 
follow the chase. The first is kneeling on one 
knee, the better to discharge his shaft; the 
other is not, as in the original, holding a hound 
in leash, but carries a bow and quiver, and 
holds spare arrows ready in his hand. 

The simple fact of this copy having been 
made at this period throws an interesting light 
on the ideas of the men of the time regarding 
the work of their distant ancestore, and on their 
ability or willingness to reproduce the art 
of the Old Kingdom. In many respects it 
affords a striking testimony to the continuity 
and conservatism of the Egyptian civilization, 
that such a representation, involving, as it does, 
close connections with the domestic economy, 
the arts and crafts, and the religious customs of 
the people, should, with but little change or 
addition, be considered a suitable depiction of 
a corresponding scene after the lapse of 2000 

The accompanying reproduction, which has 
been made with a view to the comparison of 
the copy with the original in all detail, will 
probably aftbrd opportunity for many an in- 
teresting study alike of the changes and of the 
lack of change which the long history of the 
Egyptian nation exhibits. Perhaps it may also 
aid in the detection of simUar instances in 
which the XXVIth Dynasty borrowed its 
exemplars from the Ancient Kingdom. 

' Bat liero it behoves us to be canliaue. The XXVIth 
ItyiiEUfty was a period of archaistic revival ; anil in any case 
the unsyijtematic Egyptian c»nld not bo expected to bring 
liis designs tlioronghly " up to dato " in repixxlucing them. 
It haa been pointed out iucidentnlly in Beni Htmaa, 
part iv. p. C, that bellowii were known and I'^ularly used 
by metal workers in the XVIIIth Dynasty, replacing the 
old method of blowing through canea, It is most im- 
probable that the old and very unsatisfactory mode wag 
ever again revived T!ie fut'nace blowers with theii' canee in 
the tomb of Aba at Thebes must be a strong instance of 
arcbaistic anachronism. — Ed. 



(Proper Names occurring in the Tombs art ^printed in Capitals.) 





Crafts, depiction of . 


Aba, family oonnections of 


,, titles of . 

8, 9, 22, 30, 32 

Dancers ..... 

. 15,36 

,, character of . . . 

32, 33, 34 

Deir el Oebr&wi, village of 


,, (son of Aba) 

. 9, 10, 12, 23 

Desert, hunting in the 


„ (of Thebes) 

1, 36, 37 

Drilling stone . . . . 

18, 19, 20 


. 29, 30, 31, 32, 33 

Duration of the work 

. 2 


10, 12, 30 



Administration, scenes of 

14, 33 

M^ tf% ■* 

Ebnub, town of 

3, 35 


Aket, town of . 

17, 18, 22 
. 35 

El Atiyat, village of 


^^ ^^»^^^^ ^^^ ^W ^ ^^ ^^^ • w ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ » 


15, 23 

Amenemuat .... 

. 10 


Animals ..... 

17, 22, 40 

" .Srpa-prince " . . . 


Estate names . 

22, 34, 36 


. 23, 32 

9 # 

Architecture of rock-tombs 


Facade of tombs 

. 3, 4, 5, 6. 7, 10, 26 

Architraves .... 

5, 11, 25 

False doors . . . . 

. 10, 23, 24, 26 

Art, quality of . 

13, 14, 36 

Fan bearers . . . . 

. 16 

„ methods employed . 

4, 10, 11, 13, 37 

Field scenes 

17, 18, 22 

„ revival of Old Kingdom 


Fish, species of . . . 

. 13 


. 10 

Fishing, scenes of 

12, 13, 14 

Fowl pens 


Balance, depicted . 


Fowling, scenes of . 


Banub, (see Ebnub). 

Fullers .... 



. 16 

Biographical data . . . . 


Graffito .... 


Borchardt, Dr. . . . . 

. 30 

Griffith, Mr 


Burial shafts 

2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 25, 26 

** Great Chief," title of . 

28, 29, 32 

,, • mode of ... . 

. 4, 10, 27 

Gumeh, Gebel 

. 3 

„ places, continuity of 

. 35 

,, procession . . . . 

. 15 


. 22, 24, 30, 32, 36 

Hapi, relic of . 


Canopic jars depicted 

. 37 

Harris, Mr 



19, 38, 39 



Chariot-making ^ . . . 

. 38 

Hawk, worship of . 

. • oO 

Cooking, scenes of . 

. 16 


9, 10, 11, 12, 16, 18, 23 

Colouring employed . . . . 

11, 13, 21 


. 9, 13, 23 

Coptic remains . . . . 

5, 10 

Hetepneb, tomb of 

. 4, 24, 26 

Deir el Qebrawi I. 


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